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TYPE OF INGREDIENT
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Ingredients of natural origin

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Natural Essential oils

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Components of Natural
Essential Oils

Products formulated with:

  • NO Parabens,
  • NO Phthalates,
  • NO Sulfates (SLS/SLES),
  • NO Mineral Oils,
  • NO Petrolatum,
  • NO Paraffin,
  • NO Silicones,
  • NO Lanolin,
  • NO Glicols (PEG),
  • NO MEA/DEA/TEA
  • NO PABA,
  • NO Synthetic Dyes,
  • NO Synthetic Fragrance,
  • NO Animal By-ingredients
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A

Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract*

Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract*

Shikakai nut extract. Shikakai is the Hindi name for the Acacia concinna shrub common in central and south India. It is one of the Ayurvedic herbs used for the prevention and treatment of such health problems as gastric disorders or oral diseases, as well as for diabetes prevention, cholesterol reduction, and the treatment of malaria. Thanks to their natural saponins (soaping agents) and a mild pH, Shikakai nuts are often called ‘the hair fruit’ by Indian women who have used them for centuries as an effective traditional hair cleanser and conditioner. Shikakai extract gently cleanses the hair without stripping it of its protective lipid layer. It stimulates hair growth and strengthens follicles without leaving the hair and scalp dry. It is also used to fight dandruff. The extract makes the hair denser, thicker and silky smooth. Shikakai nut extract has a high content of vitamin C (a natural antioxidant) and vitamins A, D, E and K. It protects the skin from fungal infections and has antibacterial properties. Cosmetic products containing Shikakai nut extract assist the treatment of such skin disorders as pruritus, psoriasis and eczema, and are recommended for sensitive skin which is prone to irritation.

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Acacia Senegal Gum*

Acacia Senegal Gum*

Gum obtained from the Senegal gum tree. It is a natural ingredient obtained from the sap collected from trees of the Acacia Senegal species of the legume family, which are found in Senegal, Somalia, Tanganyika and Australia. The trees grow up to 5 metres tall and form a distinctive umbrella-shaped canopy. Gum produced from the sap of Acacia Senegal trees is commonly known and used as an ingredient in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The gum is actually a blend of salts of arabic and glucuronic acids. It is easily soluble in water and has a high viscosity. It has an anti-inflammatory effect and hence is frequently used to treat skin ulcerations and inflammations. In cosmetic products, it is usually used as a thickener to improve the viscosity of cosmetic formulations, or as a foam stabiliser in cleansers.

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Achillea Millefolium (Yarrow) Flower Extract*

Achillea Millefolium (Yarrow) Flower Extract*

The extract of common yarrow flowers. Yarrow is a hairy perennial plant with distinctive feathery foliage and an inflorescence composed of tiny white or pink flowers, found throughout Europe, Asia and North America. It has a bitter taste and a pleasant aroma. Its Latin name (Achillea) is derived from the mythical Achilles who supposedly used the herb to treat battle wounds. The second part of the name – Millefolium – translates as ‘thousands of leaves’ and refers to the appearance of the plant which is covered in lots of small feathery leaves. Yarrow also has many folk names, such as hundred leaved grass, bloodwort or arrowroot. Thanks to a wide range of actives, yarrow has a broad-spectrum effect on the human body. Its healing properties were mentioned as early as in the writings of Hippocrates, who claimed it was an effective cure for haemorrhoids. Yarrow also occupies a special place in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. It is applied topically to treat inflammations of the skin and mucosa and promote wound healing. It can also be taken internally to relieve gastrointestinal discomfort, bloating, or indigestion. The yarrow herb contains a wealth of substances which are highly valued as cosmetic ingredients, including yarrow essential oil rich in azulene, cineole, borneol, er- and β-pinene. In addition, yarrow is a valuable source of cyanogenic glycosides (achillein), flavonoids, choline, tannins, salicylic acid, vitamins A, C and K, and minerals, including manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, copper, iron and sulphur compounds. Applied topically, yarrow soothes irritation, has an anti-inflammatory effect, and promotes the healing and regeneration of damaged skin. It has antibacterial and antiseptic properties, and protects damaged skin from secondary infections. It also supports the treatment of common acne or impetigo lesions, and is recommended for problem, oily and combination skin. Yarrow extract has a high content of vitamin C, which improves vascular elasticity and acts as an antioxidant protecting the skin from the free radicals responsible for aging. It stimulates the process of epidermal renewal, tightens skin pores, reduces fine lines and wrinkles, and makes the skin smoother and firmer. Thanks to the natural content of ascorbic and glycolic acids, it removes dead cells and unclogs skin pores, refreshing and brightening the skin. Common yarrow is used as an ingredient in anti-wrinkle products, cosmetic formulations designed for problem skin, and regenerating and cleansing products.

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Aesculus Hippocastanum (Horse chestnut) Seed Extract*

Aesculus Hippocastanum (Horse chestnut) Seed Extract*

The extract of horse chestnuts. The horse chestnut, also known as the conker tree, is native to the Balkan Peninsula and widely cultivated in Poland and many other European countries. Thanks to the wealth of medicinal compounds and minerals it contains, the horse chestnut has been widely used in both conventional and alternative medicine (e.g. for treating varicose veins, relieving gastric discomfort, preventing oedema and stimulating blood circulation). In the cosmetic industry, extracts of horse chestnut fruits and seeds are commonly used as a source of such biologically active substances as flavonoids (astragalin, rutin, quercetin), coumarins, tannins and triterpenoid saponins, including aescins with anti-inflammatory, anti-swelling and venotonic properties. Aescin inhibits the activity of the enzymes that destroy capillary walls, thus preventing vascular leakage and making the capillaries more elastic and resistant to stretching or breaking. It prevents mild facial redness, ensuring a healthy-looking and refreshed fair complexion. Horse chestnut extract improves skin tightness and moisture levels, which makes it a valuable ingredient in cosmetic products for mature skin. It acts as a natural sunscreen and can also be added to formulations designed to reduce dark circles and puffiness under the eyes because it promotes lymphatic drainage and has anti-swelling properties. The ingredient is also used in anti-cellulite products to improve microcirculation and eliminate excess water accumulated in tissues. It is widely used in cooling gels for ‘tired’ legs with skin prone to dilated and fragile capillaries and so-called spider veins. Horse chestnut extract has a wide range of cosmetic uses. It is the active ingredient in many face cleansers, make-up removers, toners, masks, face creams and shampoos.

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Algae Extract*

Algae Extract*

A product obtained by algae extraction. It is rich in microelements and vitamins, and has moisturising and antibacterial properties. Vitamins E and C and ß-carotene contained in the algae have a free-radical scavenging capacity, strengthen vascular walls, stimulate processes in the skin and improve the skin tone.

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Aqua*

Aqua*

Purified (demineralised) water is primarily used for making plant extracts. As the best solvent known, water enables substances to be extracted from plants, and the consistency and concentration of those extracts to be adjusted. It is also used as an ingredient in rinse-off cleansing products. Water itself has moisturising properties and facilitates the penetration of active ingredients into the skin.

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Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil*

Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil*

Argan, known as iron wood, is a calcareous tree endemic to the arid regions of southwest Morocco. For centuries, the tree has been a major source of food and fuel for the indigenous Berber population. The history of the Berber people living in the Agadir region has also been inseparably connected with the argan tree because of argan oil. Traditionally, only Berber women can take part in the extraction of argan oil. The nuts are cracked by hand between two stones to remove the kernel. Next, the kernels are dried, gently roasted, combined with water and ground into paste using rotary quern-stones. The paste is then squeezed by hand to extract the oil. Argan oil is pressed mechanically without adding water, which extends its shelf life. The oil contains 80% unsaturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. It also contains tocopherols (vitamin E) and sterols. Argan oil is an excellent toning agent. It also strengthens the body’s natural defences and has a soothing and anti-inflammatory effect. It has been proven to contain twice as much vitamin E as olive oil. Its price is ten times higher than that of olive oil. Argan oil is used as a moisturising agent for dry skin and as an anti-wrinkle cosmetic ingredient. Cosmetic products formulated with argan oil soften the skin, minimise the appearance of wrinkles, and help to restore the epidermal hydro-lipid barrier.

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B

Balanites Aegyptiaca (Soap berry tree) Fruit Extract*

Balanites Aegyptiaca (Soap berry tree) Fruit Extract*

The extract of (the fruit of) the soap berry tree. The soap berry tree is an exceptional drought-tolerant plant native to the barren lands of Africa and West Asia. Its juicy bittersweet fruit is referred to as slave dates or Egyptian myrobalan. The fruit, as well as the bark, sap and roots, has been used in traditional African medicine to treat many health problems, including gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as rheumatic and parasitic diseases. Soap berry extract is used in cosmetic formulations because of its high content of actives, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids and organic acids. It is a valuable ingredient in both regenerating cosmetic products and formulations that support the treatment of such inflammatory skin diseases as psoriasis or eczema.

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Bambusa Arundinacea (Bamboo) Stem Extract*

Bambusa Arundinacea (Bamboo) Stem Extract*

Bamboo extract. Bamboo is an exotic plant of the grass family, which is native to Asia. It is the world’s fastest-growing plant (it can grow up to 1 metre in 24 hours) and can reach a height of 35-40 metres. Bamboo is a symbol of longevity and happiness for the Chinese, and of purity for the Japanese. Due to its exceptional properties, including durability, light weight, antibacterial effect and elasticity, the plant has a wide range of uses in different industries: from construction, through musical instrument and paper making, right up to the textile industry. Bamboo is also widely used in the cosmetic industry because of the significant number (as many as 520) of actives it contains, including silica, amino acids, flavonoids, numerous minerals (as well as silica, it also contains iron, calcium, potassium, sodium and iodine), and vitamins. Bamboo extract is a valuable ingredient in cosmetic products which boost oxygen supply, have an anti-wrinkle or anti-cellulite effect, or strengthen capillaries. It also works well in products which renew and regenerate weak nails or hair which is prone to falling out. Valuable actives contained in bamboo include polyphenols, i.e. antioxidants. They help to slow down skin aging and improve skin firmness by inhibiting the formation of free radicals. Flavonoids at high concentrations strengthen capillaries, improving the condition of sensitive skin. They protect the skin from the harmful effect of the sun and reduce cellulite. Bamboo is a valuable source of silica, which is essential for the synthesis of collagen and elastin in the skin. Bamboo stems are used to produce powder containing up to 90% silica, which is excellent for acne-prone skin. This powder takes the form of a lightweight white dust composed of very fine loose particles. Applied to the skin, it provides a transparent finish without appearing chalky. It has excellent mattifying properties, reduces sebum secretion and soothes irritated acne-prone skin. Combined with benzoic acid, bamboo extract has an antiseptic, astringent and anti-inflammatory effect on the skin, and inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould.

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Benzyl Alcohol

Benzyl Alcohol

Benzyl alcohol (phenylmethanol) is an organic compound, one of the aromatic alcohols. Its esters are natural components of several essential oils, including rose, jasmine and hyacinth. It is used as an ingredient in fragrance compositions, a flavouring agent for foods, and a preservative.

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Beta-Sitosterol*

Beta-Sitosterol*

Beta-sitosterol is an organic compound of the phytosterol family, and its chemical structure is similar to that of cholesterol. It is a natural constituent of many vegetable oils, avocado and nuts. It is added to foods to lower levels of the so-called ‘bad cholesterol.’ In the cosmetic industry, it is used as an emulsifier and emulsion stabiliser.

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Biosaccharide Gum-1*

Biosaccharide Gum-1*

A polysaccharide made from soybeans and corn. It forms a protective film (occlusive layer) on the skin, provides intense hydration, promotes regeneration, soothes irritations, and can have an anti-allergic effect. It can be used to modify the texture of cosmetic products thanks to its gelling properties.

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Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter*

Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter*

Shea butter. The African shea tree is a medium-sized, long-lived deciduous tree with a massive bole. Living for an average of 300 years, it starts bearing fruit when it is 30 years old, and continues to produce nuts once a year for the rest of its life. The shea tree is native to the sub-Saharan savanna in West and Central Africa. It is seldom cultivated – most trees grow naturally in the wild. As it is regarded as a staple by many people throughout Africa, it cannot be privately owned even if when growing on private land. In most of Africa, felling or destroying the shea tree is strictly prohibited. The edible nuts of the shea tree are a major source of dietary fats. Shea butter produced from shea nuts is known for its healing properties, and is used to treat minor cuts, sunburns, rheumatism and muscle pain. Shea butter is a rich source of vitamins, and of the stearic and oleic acids which are responsible for its excellent moisturising and photoprotective properties. Shea butter is also widely used for treating abrasions and chapped skin.

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C

Calcium Gluconate

Calcium Gluconate

Calcium gluconate is a medication used mainly for treating conditions caused by calcium deficiency. However, it has a much wider range of uses – it is also an anti-inflammatory, anti-swelling and anti-exudative agent. It alleviates allergy symptoms, promotes burn healing, strengthens vascular walls, and has a constrictive effect. It is used in cosmetic products as an agent that binds and stabilises other ingredients, or as a humectant.

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Calendula Officinalis (Marigold) Flower Extract*

Calendula Officinalis (Marigold) Flower Extract*

The extract of common marigold flowers. Common marigold, also known as calendula, is an aromatic herbaceous perennial, growing up to 50 cm tall. It blooms during summer. In countries where the temperature never drops below zero, marigolds will produce flowers all year long. Marigold flowers are intense orange or yellow in colour, sometimes with a darker centre. The marigold is native to the Mediterranean region. It was used as a medicinal herb and a dye material by many ancient cultures, including the Greeks, Romans, Arabs and Indians. In the Middle Ages, marigolds were commonly grown in kitchen gardens as an effective herbal remedy for many ailments. Marigold promotes the healing of wounds and ulcerations. Taken internally, it relieves fever and helps to fight chronic infections. The decoction of fresh marigold petals normalises blood circulation and relieves the pain caused by varicose veins. Marigold flower extract is known for its soothing, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, anti-haemorrhagic and circulation-stimulating properties, and is used widely as an ingredient in products which promote tissue regeneration and healing. It also helps treat insect stings and bites, as well as dislocation of joints and eye inflammation. Thanks to its antifungal properties, marigold flower extract is frequently used as an ingredient in foot care products. It does not cause allergic reactions or irritations even in children or people with very sensitive skin.

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Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride*

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride*

Caprylic/capric triglyceride is an ester which has properties similar to those of natural triglycerides, but is more pleasant to use, which is particularly important in cosmetic products. It is used as a solvent for lipophilic actives and UV filters. This plant-derived product is a universal emollient with good conditioning properties.

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Carica Papaya Fruit Extract*

Carica Papaya Fruit Extract*

The extract of the papaya fruit. Papaya is a tree-shaped perennial growing up to 10m tall. It comes from South America, but is now widely cultivated in all tropical regions. Often called ‘the wonder fruit,’ papaya is valued not only for its taste, but also for its outstanding medicinal properties, which include supporting gastrointestinal and cardiovascular function, and anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Papaya fruit is also used in cosmetic formulations on account of its high content of many different nutrients, including antioxidants, vitamins A and C, carotenoids, flavonoids and folic acid, as well as such minerals as potassium, magnesium, copper and iron, and as many as 212 organic amino acids. In addition, papaya is a valuable source of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), which strengthens the hair and skin, and of numerous enzymes, including papain which cleanses the skin by removing dead epidermis and stimulates skin renewal. The enzyme works effectively, yet very gently, which makes it an excellent ingredient in enzyme peels that can be applied even to sensitive or couperose skin. Thanks to its high antioxidant content, papaya is an effective free radical scavenger. It helps to keep a youthful-looking skin for longer, reduces wrinkles, and minimises their appearance. Papaya extract is also used in moisturising cosmetics because of its ability to absorb and bind moisture in the epidermis. It makes the skin smoother, stimulates blood circulation, and has a nourishing and refreshing effect. It provides a matte finish and evens out the skin tone.

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Centella Asiatica Extract*

Centella Asiatica Extract*

Pennywort extract. Pennywort is an aromatic medicinal herb native to India, China and Indonesia. Its common name ‘Gotu Kola’ means ‘a cup-shaped leaf’ in Sinhala. It is also called the tiger herb or tiger’s claw. The beneficial effect and medicinal properties of pennywort have long been recognized by Indian medicine – Ayurveda – which has used the herb widely for centuries to fight fever, stimulate appetite, improve eyesight and memory, as well as to treat many diseases of the urinary, circulatory and digestive systems, and such skin conditions as vitiligo, eczema or psoriasis. Gotu Kola is widely used in cosmetic formulations because of the conditioning properties of the flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, essential oils and vitamins A, C and E it contains. Triterpenoid saponins prove particularly useful, and their beneficial effect on the skin is a scientifically proven fact. The compounds have an outstanding anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect, and stimulate collagen synthesis. They contribute to the improvement in skin density and elasticity, help reduce wrinkles and boost skin moisture levels. They stimulate cell renewal, improve blood circulation and strengthen blood vessels, helping to reduce puffiness and dark circles under the eyes. Pennywort extract is widely used in anti-aging and anti-acne products, cosmetics for dry and sensitive skin, and formulations designed for the skin with cellulite or stretch marks. It is also a popular ingredient in cosmetic products for skin with dilated capillaries or rosacea.

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Cetearyl Alcohol*

Cetearyl Alcohol*

Cetearyl (cetostearyl) alcohol is a plant-derived product, usually obtained from the coconut palm. It is used in cosmetic formulations as a consistency regulator and stabiliser for oil-in-water emulsions. It gives creams and lotions their smooth texture and improves glide.

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Cetearyl Glucoside*

Cetearyl Glucoside*

Cetearyl glucoside is produced by the condensation of cetearyl alcohol and glucose. It is produced from natural ingredients. It is used as an emulsifier in oil-in-water emulsions, and to provide a velvety texture to cosmetic products. It helps to maintain proper skin and hair hydration.

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Chamomilla Recutita (Camomile) Flower Extract*

Chamomilla Recutita (Camomile) Flower Extract*

The extract of camomile flowers. Camomile is an annual herbaceous plant with daisy-like flowers which bloom throughout the summer. Camomile fosters the growth of plants growing close by, and is thus considered an excellent companion plant for growing in vegetable gardens. An infusion of dried camomile buds and flowers is believed to stimulate digestion and relieve nervous tension. Applied externally, it accelerates the healing of wounds, sunburns, haemorrhoids, and eye inflammation. Camomile infusion used as a rinse for blond hair intensifies its colour and provides sheen. Camomile contains many essential oils. Some of these are converted to chamazulene, which has strong anti-allergic properties. For this reason, the extract of camomile flower heads is a valued ingredient in cosmetic products for people prone to allergies. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory, disinfectant and irritation-relieving properties, camomile works well as an ingredient in soothing skin care products, especially those designed for irritated or acne skin. It is widely used in sunscreens and after-sun products as well as hair care products which lighten the hair or protect its natural blond colour. Camomile essential oil is used in the perfume industry and often added as a fragrance to face toners and shower and bath products.

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Chlorella Vulgaris (Green Algae) Extract*

Chlorella Vulgaris (Green Algae) Extract*

Chlorella was one of the first single-cell green microalgae (2 to 8 μm in size) to be discovered. It has existed on the Earth for 2 million years. The amino acid composition of chlorella is very similar to the composition of human collagen. Chlorella has an antiangiogenic effect and promotes vascular regeneration. It is used in skin care products which prevent capillary breakage or treat acne lesions, and due to its lightening properties it is also included in formulations which lighten dark circles under the eyes.

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Chondrus Crispus (Carrageenan) Powder*

Chondrus Crispus (Carrageenan) Powder*

Chondrus crispus is a species of red algae commonly called Irish moss, whose Irish name is ‘Carrageen,’ meaning ‘little rock.’ It grows in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Containing natural proteins, minerals, vitamin C and vitamins B, including B1, B2, B5 and PP, it is used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry to produce tablets, and in the food industry for beer clearing. It also has some medicinal effects, especially on the gastrointestinal tract. In the British royal court, it used to be administered as a remedy for inflammatory conditions of the respiratory and urinary tracts, as well as diarrhoea, dysentery and rickets. Irish moss is also used in the cosmetic industry for its excellent moisturising properties (it reduces transepidermal water loss) and ability to soften the skin and soothe irritations. It effectively regenerates the skin, making it tighter and rejuvenated. It stimulates microcirculation, energises the skin and increases the rate of skin cell metabolism. In addition, it controls the release of actives into the skin, prolonging their action. It makes the skin elastic and velvety smooth. Irish moss contains no sensitising ingredients and is well tolerated by all skin types. It is used in face and body care products, especially those designed for dry and damaged skin, as well as in hair care and anti-cellulite products. Carrageen is also a natural alternative to paraffin oil, silicones and synthetic emollients.

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Cinnamal***

Cinnamal***

Cinnamal is a derivative of cinnamaldehyde, a flavonoid occurring naturally in the bark and other parts of cinnamon trees. Cinnamon oil, composed of 50% cinnamaldehyde, is extracted from the bark of the cinnamon tree by steam distillation or pressing. It is used in the food industry for its aroma, and its antimicrobial properties make it an excellent preservative for use in natural cosmetic products.

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Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Bark Oil**

Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Bark Oil**

Cinnamon oil is extracted from the bark of the Ceylon cinnamon tree which is mostly found in Sri Lanka, the Seychelles and Madagascar. Cinnamon is one of the oldest spices, whose use dates back to ancient Egypt, where it was used to flavour drinks and embalm mummies. Cinnamon oil is extracted from the bark of the cinnamon tree by steam distillation. It contains cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, caryophyllene, cinnamic acid and linalool. It has a wide range of uses both in medicine, and in cosmetics. Cinnamon oil has strong antibacterial properties, which are crucial for products intended for oily skin care. It eliminates pustules, lightens hyperpigmentation and prevents post-acne spots. In addition, it is used in slimming and anti-cellulite products on account of its firming and astringent effect. It helps cleanse the body and stimulates toxin removal from the skin. It fights free radicals and delays aging. Cinnamon oil has a strong warming and circulation-stimulating effect, which makes it an important ingredient in so-called warming cosmetics (bath, body or foot care products) perfect for the autumn and winter season. It is also used in the perfume industry and aromatherapy, and has an attractive and intense spicy aroma. It creates a feeling of warmth and relaxation, and helps to relieve stress.

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Citral***

Citral***

Citral is the main ingredient in the essential oils of such plants as lemon or lemongrass (which contains as much as 80% citral). Citral is used in natural cosmetics for its pleasant lemon-like fragrance and antimicrobial properties. It is extracted from plants by steam distillation or pressing.

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Citric Acid*

Citric Acid*

Citric acid is obtained from fruit juice. It is used as a natural preservative and astringent in cosmetic products. It normalises skin pH.

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Citronellol***

Citronellol***

Citronellol is found in the essential oils of many plants, including lemon balm, lemongrass, lemon tree leaves, several rose species, geranium and orange. It is extracted directly from plants by mechanical methods, steam distillation or pressing. It is used extensively in the perfume and cosmetic industries for its attractive intense aroma.

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Citrus Aurantium Amara (Neroli) Flower Water*

Citrus Aurantium Amara (Neroli) Flower Water*

Hydrosol from bitter orange blossom (neroli water). This is extracted by distillation from the blossom of the bitter orange plant, which is also called sour or neroli orange. The name ‘neroli’ comes from the 16th century Italian prince of Nerola, who brought exquisite fragrances, including one made from orange blossom, as presents from his travels for his wife Anna-Marie de la Tremoille, who loved perfume. The hydrosol has a fresh floral aroma which is quite different from the fragrance of the orange fruit. It can be applied directly to the skin as a toner or refreshing mist, or used as an ingredient in cosmetic products for oily, acne-prone, couperose, red, sensitive, delicate and mature skins. Neroli water contains flavonoids, minerals, vitamins C, B1 and B2, as well as pro-vitamin A, biotin, diosmin and niacin. It helps to prevent premature wrinkles by protecting the skin from collagen and elastin degradation, and demonstrates antioxidant properties. It normalises the function of the sebaceous glands and sebum secretion, has an antibacterial effect, cleanses and tones up the skin, and tightens skin pores, which is particularly beneficial for oily and acne-prone skin. In addition, it reduces the permeability of capillary walls, minimising skin redness and soothing inflammation. The hydrosol imparts a sensual fragrance to cosmetic products and has a relaxing effect, helping to relieve tension and stress.

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Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Peel Oil**

Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Peel Oil**

Bergamot oil is produced from the fruit of the bergamot orange tree which is grown almost exclusively in Calabria, Italy. It is extracted from the rind of the bergamot fruit by pressing and steam distillation. It has a refreshing citrus fragrance. It enjoys great popularity and is used extensively in aromatherapy, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, disinfectants and skin care products (soaps, creams, etc.) Its main constituents include limonene, acetate, bisabolene, linalool, nerol and geraniol. Bergamot oil demonstrates antiseptic and antiviral properties and has an exquisite aroma, which makes it a desirable ingredient in anti-acne therapies, cosmetic formulations for oily skins, and products used in the treatment of skin infections, herpes blisters or sores, eczema and impetigo. It also works well as an anti-dandruff agent. Because it effectively neutralises the bacteria that cause perspiration odour, it is used extensively as a natural deodorant. Used in aromatherapy, it helps to control mood swings, depression and anxiety. It provides an energy boost and helps you to keep going. Similar to other citrus essential oils, it is a photosensitising agent which should not be applied to the skin when sunbathing or during exposure to the sun.

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Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil**

Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil**

Oil extracted from the rind of the sweet orange fruit. The sweet orange is a small tree which can grow up to 9 metres tall. It comes from Southeast Asia and was probably first crossbred as a hybrid of pomelo and mandarin back in ancient times. Its English name ‘orange’ derives from Sanskrit. Currently, the world's leading orange producers include Brazil, the US and Mexico. Sweet oranges are mainly grown for their juice, but they also have a wide range of other uses: the blossom is distilled for its extract, and the rind of the fruit is used to produce essential oil, which is an ingredient in many perfumes and skin care products. It is also used in aromatherapy as a natural antidepressant which brings relaxation and creates a feeling of warmth and happiness. In traditional Chinese medicine, both the essential oil and unprocessed orange peel have long been recommended as cough and cold drugs and remedies for anorexia. Thanks to its diuretic effect and ability to stimulate the lymphatic system, orange peel helps to normalise water retention and fight obesity. It also eliminates toxins and, due to its high pectin content, is recommended as a remedy for such digestive problems as constipation or bloating. It can be used as an all-purpose toner, too. Sweet orange peel oil contains substantial amounts of vitamins C, A and B, plant enzymes, flavonoids and a wide array of plant-derived nutrients. For this reason, it is a valuable ingredient in cosmetic products for different skin types, e.g. in cleansers for oily and acne-prone skin, because it gently cleanses the skin, tightens skin pores, and has an antiseptic effect which helps to prevent new comedones, while the enzymes contained in orange peel oil exfoliate dead epidermal cells, giving the complexion a refreshed appearance. Orange peel oil is also added to cosmetic products designed for mature skin, because it delays the signs of aging and stimulates collagen synthesis. Thanks to its ability to stimulate the lymphatic system, orange peel oil promotes the elimination of toxins and excess water from the skin, which makes it an important ingredient in anti-cellulite products.

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Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Fruit Extract*

Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Fruit Extract*

The extract of the fruit of the grapefruit tree. Grapefruit, also known as ‘the lemon of paradise,’ is the healthiest of citrus fruits. It has a variety of health benefits: it promotes digestion, detoxifies the body and increases metabolism. It is recommended to diabetes patients because of its ability to lower blood glucose levels. It also demonstrates strong anti-atherosclerotic properties which help to reduce the risk of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. It improves the condition and appearance of skin thanks to the valuable nutrients it contains, including vitamin C at a high concentration, as well as amino acids, carbon dioxide, and fruit acids. It moisturises and cleanses the skin, and has a relaxing and toning effect. It strengthens blood vessels. Thanks to its high vitamin C content, it neutralises free radicals and provides protection from the harmful effects of the sun. It has a firming and cleansing effect, and gives radiance to the complexion. It is beneficial for the nervous system and helps to relieve stress.

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Citrus Limon (Lemon) Peel Extract*

Citrus Limon (Lemon) Peel Extract*

Oil extracted from the rind of the lemon fruit. Lemon, or Citrus limon, is a perennial species of the rue family, which was probably first crossbred as a hybrid of lime and citron. It originates from Southeast China, but no longer grows there in the wild. It is widespread in the Mediterranean region (e.g. in Italy, Spain and Greece), as well as in Mexico and the US. Lemons are a rich source of flavonoids, hydroxy acids and vitamin C. Lemon peel extract is used as an ingredient in products which have anti-wrinkle, astringent, antiseptic and refreshing effects. It demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties and strengthens capillaries, minimising redness and erythema. It helps to eliminate swelling and hyperpigmentation, lightens the skin and exfoliates cornified epidermis. It stimulates collagen synthesis. It is used in cosmetic products for oily, acne-prone and couperose skin, and is perfect to ensure a smooth, firm and radiant complexion. It can also be used as a fragrance.

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Citrus Limon (Lemon) Peel Water*

Citrus Limon (Lemon) Peel Water*

The hydrosol from the rind of the lemon fruit is extracted by distillation from the fruit of Citrus limonum Risso (L.) Burm. It can be used as a cosmetic ingredient, or applied directly to the skin as a toner. It contains vitamin C and alpha hydroxy acids at low concentrations, as well as carotenoids, biotin, folic acid, riboflavin and thiamine. It is a rich source of flavonoids which enhance the effects of vitamin C. It demonstrates cleansing, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and astringent properties. It strengthens fragile capillaries and reduces their permeability, prevents swelling and improves skin elasticity. It enhances the appearance of skin, making the complexion refreshed and radiant. It is used in cosmetic products for sensitive skin with broken capillaries, irritations, acne or inflammation. Its delicate refreshing scent has a relaxing effect.

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Citrus Paradisi (Grapefruit) Peel Oil**

Citrus Paradisi (Grapefruit) Peel Oil**

Grapefruit oil is extracted by pressing from the rind of the fruit of the Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) tree. The natural extraction method means the oil retains both its precious actives and its excellent medicinal and cosmetic properties. Grapefruit oil is a valuable source of rejuvenating antioxidants (including vitamin C), vitamins (PP, A, B), bioflavonoids and minerals (calcium and potassium). Its fresh citrus aroma is highly refreshing and stimulating. It is particularly recommended for oily and acne-prone skins which need cleansing. Formulations rich in grapefruit oil tighten skin pores and reduce sebum secretion, make the skin smoother, alleviate inflammation and eliminate hyperpigmentation. They even out the skin tone, adding radiance to the complexion. Grapefruit oil slows down skin aging and neutralises free radicals, promoting the growth and regeneration of the epidermis. Due to its strong anti-cellulite properties and the ability to stimulate circulation and promote the breakdown of lipids in cells, it is used extensively in products which combat ‘orange peel skin’ and have a body-sculpting and slimming effect. It also prevents stretch marks during pregnancy and makes the skin much firmer. The refreshing aroma of grapefruit oil boosts energy and reduces stress. For this reason, the oil is used in aromatherapy to relieve nervous tension, enhance mood and well-being, control anxiety and alleviate migraine headaches. It has a phototoxic effect: it increases the skin’s sensitivity, which can lead to irritation or even sunburns. It is used extensively in the perfume industry.

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Citrus Reticulata (Tangerine) Peel Oil**

Citrus Reticulata (Tangerine) Peel Oil**

Mandarin oil. The tangerine, also called mandarin orange, is a small citrus tree with dark green leaves and hard and sharp thorns that can be up to 5 cm long. It produces white fragrant flowers and bright orange-coloured fruit which can have a reddish hue. The peel of the fruit is slightly rough and contains numerous oil glands. The fruit can be easily peeled by hand and split into segments. There are several mandarin varieties – the most popular include tangerine, clementine, and satsuma. Mandarin trees thrive on fertile and wet, yet well-drained soils. They tolerate dry periods and low temperatures better than other citrus trees, but their fruit is highly vulnerable to freeze damage. Mandarin trees are native to Southeast Asia and the Philippines. Today, they are also grown in other tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including such countries as Japan, China, India, the US, Algeria and Italy. In China, mandarins are traditionally presented as gifts at Chinese New Year as symbols of abundance and prosperity. The Chinese also believe the fruit strengthens the digestive system. Mandarin peel is used to treat indigestion, coughs, various infections and low blood pressure. Mandarin essential oil is cold-pressed from the peel of the fruit, while an essential oil called Petitgrain is extracted by steam distillation from the leaves and green twigs of the mandarin tree. Both essential oils produced from the mandarin are used in cooking, medicine and cosmetics. The best quality oils are believed to be those produced from plants grown in Algeria and on Sicily. Mandarin leaf oil contains abundant quantities of vitamin C, flavonoids, fruit acids and essential oils. It is a rich source of antioxidants and exfoliants. It normalises the function of the sebaceous glands, which makes it a valuable moisturising ingredient in cosmetic products intended for dry skin, as well as a toning ingredient in products for oily skin. Mandarin leaf oil has strong antibacterial properties. Due to its ability to inhibit bacterial growth, the oil is used as an effective active ingredient in deodorants. Mandarin leaf oil has also been found to prevent stretch marks and minimise the appearance of existing lesions. For this reason, it has been used extensively in skin care products designed to eliminate this type of skin blemish. Mandarin leaf oil can also be added to tanning products because it contains the chemical compound bergapten, which promotes skin pigmentation. However, when used for this purpose it can also make the skin hypersensitive to sunlight. Mandarin leaf oil has a slightly sweet and refreshing floral aroma and is an important component of many perfumes.

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Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil*

Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil*

Coconut oil is extracted from the flesh of coconuts harvested from the coconut palm. It is cold-pressed from coconut pulp and subsequently refined. Fresh coconut flesh contains 35-40% fats, 10% carbohydrates, 3% proteins and water. Coconut oil is characterised by a high content of saturated short- and medium-chain fatty acids: lauric, myristic, palmitic, caprylic and stearic. It also contains polyphenols, vitamins and minerals. At room temperature, coconut oil is solid and does not normally go off. It is used for cooking and in the production of chocolate spreads, as well as for the manufacture of cosmetics, soaps, lotions and perfumes. In addition, coconut oil has a wide range of medicinal applications for its antiseptic, astringent and bactericidal properties. In tropical countries, it is used for treating asthma, bronchitis, bruises, burns, abrasions, cough, fever and influenza. It is also applied to hair to prevent greying. Thanks to its high content of fatty acids, coconut oil can be used as a moisturising and smoothing ingredient in skin care products. It penetrates dry and cornified skin and reaches its deep layers to ensure a moisturising and smoothing effect. Thanks to a high concentration of lauric acid, which has bactericidal properties, coconut oil can also be used in formulations designed to reduce acne. What is more, coconut oil can protect the skin from sunlight, offering a level of protection comparable to that of an SPF10 sunscreen. Coconut oil is also used in hair care. Lauric triglyceride strengthens and boosts the regeneration of the hair structure.

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Crocus Chrysanthus Bulb Extract*

Crocus Chrysanthus Bulb Extract*

The crocus is one of the most popular flowering plants which bloom in early spring. Its flowers symbolise youth and a new beginning. The basic function of the substances contained in the crocus bulb is to store nutrients. For this reason, crocus bulbs are used in the cosmetic industry. Research shows that the extract of crocus bulbs stimulates communication between the cells of the epidermis and dermis, increasing the synthesis of growth factors in keratinocytes. The extract also increases collagen and elastin synthesis, restores the skin’s suppleness and firmness, reverses aging and effectively rejuvenates the skin.

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D

Decyl Glucoside*

Decyl Glucoside*

Decyl glucoside is a non-ionic surfactant used in body washes. It is produced from natural materials by the reaction of the fatty alcohol derived from coconut oil with glucose obtained from corn. It is recommended for sensitive skin and can be used in products for babies. Thanks to its ability to bind moisture, it not only cleanses the skin, but also has a smoothing and softening effect.

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Dicaprylyl Carbonate*

Dicaprylyl Carbonate*

Dicaprylyl carbonate is a plant-derived ingredient. It improves the stability of cosmetic products (preventing phase separation) and works well as an emulsifier (enhancing the consistency and texture). It cleanses and softens the skin without leaving a greasy film on its surface. It makes dry skin velvety to the touch.

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E

Equisetum Arvense (Horsetail) Extract*

Equisetum Arvense (Horsetail) Extract*

Field horsetail extract. Field horsetail is so widespread in the colder regions of the northern hemisphere that it is commonly regarded as a weed. Research shows, though, that field horsetail is closely related to the tree-sized ferns of the Mesozoic era, and its cells contain more chromosomes than human cells. The plants are rough to the touch because their stems contain silica, which reinforces their structure. Horsetails were traditionally used for scouring metal objects or polishing brass, or as a substitute for fine-grade sandpaper used on hardwood. Folk medicine recommended horsetail for strengthening hair, nails, bones and tendons. Horsetail decoction was used as a remedy for urinary infections and an anti-haemorrhagic agent; it was applied topically to staunch wounds and used to stop nasal bleeding and treat hemoptysis. Horsetail extract contains high quality silicon in a water-soluble form which is easily absorbed by the body. Silicon plays an essential role in collagen synthesis. It strengthens and improves the elasticity of bones, tendons, nails and hair, which makes it an important ingredient in anti-aging and firming products. The diverse minerals contained in horsetail extract have a stimulating and revitalising effect and support the function of the circulatory system, while the tannins contained in the extract demonstrate astringent properties and normalise sebum secretion. For these reasons, cosmetic formulations enriched with horsetail extract make the skin healthy and radiant. Horsetail extract is typically used in elasticity-improving skin care products, antiperspirants, and massage lotions and oils. It is also a valuable ingredient in cosmetic formulations which prevent scalp oiliness and hair loss.

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Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanolum, Aethanolum)

Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanolum, Aethanolum)

Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is produced by the fermentation of plants containing sugar or starch. It is an antiseptic with astringent and toning properties.

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Ethylhexylglycerin

Ethylhexylglycerin

Ethylhexylglycerin is an alkyl glyceryl ether. It is a mild humectant (an agent that retains moisture) and a natural preservative enhancer which boosts the activity of other preservatives added to cosmetic products. Ethylhexylglycerin affects the surface tension of microbial cell walls, making it easier for preservatives to penetrate and destroy them. The same property helps to reduce the surface tension between the water and oil phases in cosmetic products.

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Eugenia Caryophyllus (Clove) Bud Oil**

Eugenia Caryophyllus (Clove) Bud Oil**

Clove oil is produced by steam distillation of the unopened flower buds of the clove tree. The clove tree (Eugenia caryophyllus) is an evergreen that grows in Sumatra, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Mauritius and the Seychelles. The best cloves come from Tanzania. Clove oil is dark yellow to brown in colour, with a warm and spicy aroma. As one of the most important essential oils, it is used extensively for flavouring foods and in the production of perfumes, cosmetic products and pharmaceutical formulations with antiseptic properties. The main constituent of clove oil is eugenol (ca. 95%), which demonstrates analgesic and antiseptic properties. Other actives contained in cloves include magnesium, calcium, hydrochloric acid, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, as well as omega-3 fatty acids and vitamins A, C and K. Clove oil used for aromatherapy calms the nerves and has an invigorating effect. It stimulates and clears the mind, and improves the mood, and is considered an aphrodisiac. It is used in toothpastes, creams, warming ointments and anti-cellulite formulations, and is an important ingredient in fragrance products. It has a strong warming and analgesic effect. It stimulates blood supply to the skin and enhances the penetration of the substances which improve lymphatic drainage and lipid breakdown. It is also recommended for oily and problem (acne- or psoriasis-affected) skin because it promotes healing and alleviates skin inflammation. It is a strong allergen that can cause irritation to the skin if used undiluted. After applying the oil to the skin, it is necessary to avoid exposure to direct sunlight.

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Eugenol***

Eugenol***

A natural constituent of essential oils extracted from certain plants, and especially clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, basil and bay leaf. It is present at a concentration of 80%-90% in clove oil. It is extracted from plants by mechanical methods, steam distillation or pressing.

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F

Farnesol***

Farnesol***

Farnesol is an organic compound which is a sesquiterpene alcohol. It occurs naturally in numerous essential oils, e.g. those extracted from plants such as neroli (bitter orange blossom), lily of the valley, linden, nutmeg and acacia. It is used in perfumery to bring out sweet and floral scents. Farnesol is also used in natural cosmetics for its preservative properties related to its ability to inhibit bacterial growth.

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G

Gardenia Tahitensis Flower Extract*

Gardenia Tahitensis Flower Extract*

Gardenia (also called Tiaré Māori or Tahitian gardenia) grows in the wild in Tahiti, the largest island in French Polynesia in the South Pacific. It is one of the few plants cultivated in Polynesia. Tiaré flower contains abundant aroma compounds and esters which make up a blend of 80 aromatic substances typical of the gardenia fragrance. They include dihydroconiferyl alcohol (DHC) and its natural derivatives responsible for gardenia’s vanilla scent, as well as terpene alcohols, esters and methyl salicylate, which is one of the distinctive qualities of the Tiaré flower essence. Tiaré is a symbol of Tahiti and the national flower of French Polynesia. Gardenia flowers are used in flower necklaces which are called ‘Ei’ in Tahiti, or ‘Lei’ in Hawaii. Polynesian women wear them as decoration and present them to tourists. Tiaré is one of the plants used extensively in traditional Polynesian medicine. Macerated in coconut oil, it produces so-called monoi oil, which is used to treat a wide range of health problems from mosquito bites, through headaches, right up to liver cancer. Flower buds pounded with monoi oil are used to treat earaches and dress wounds, especially when combined with breadfruit sap. There have been several studies intended to confirm the moisturising properties of monoi oil. In one study in 1998, monoi oil was compared with other oils (coconut, Vaseline, jojoba and shea oils) to evaluate their moisturising properties and effects on the skin following topical application. At 6 hours after application, monoi oil demonstrated the best moisturising action, which means it has a more lasting effect on the skin than the other oils.

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Geraniol***

Geraniol***

Geraniol is a constituent of natural essential oils. It is found in substantial quantities in rose, geranium and lemon oils. It has an intense aroma with a distinct fresh note. It is extracted directly from plants by mechanical methods, steam distillation or pressing. It is used in the cosmetic industry as an ingredient in fragrance compositions.

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Gluconolactone*

Gluconolactone*

In chemical terms, gluconolactone is a lactone of gluconic acid, occurring naturally in human skin. It is found in honey, fruit juice and wine, and can also be produced synthetically. Gluconolactone represents the new generation of polyhydroxy acids (PHAs). Polyhydroxy acids have the same qualities and properties as the popular alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), but they are milder and cause none of the side effects such as intense skin peeling, burning, tingling or redness which can develop when using AHAs. The milder action of PHAs results from the structure of their molecules, which are larger and hence cannot penetrate the skin as fast as AHAs, and especially glycolic acid. For this reason, PHAs are a good alternative for individuals with highly sensitive skin, and can also be used by people suffering from rosacea, psoriasis, seborrhoea, eczema and other skin conditions. PHAs have strong moisturising and anti-wrinkle properties. They promote collagen and elastin synthesis and prevent the formation of free radicals. In addition, PHAs do not increase the skin’s sensitivity to UV radiation.

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Glycerin*

Glycerin*

Glycerin, also called glycerol, is the oldest known humectant. It softens the skin, improves its elasticity and, most importantly, binds moisture in the skin for up to 24 hours, because this is how long glycerol remains in the epidermis. Glycerol also demonstrates bacteriostatic properties and helps to maintain the physical stability of active ingredients (it prevents recrystallization, imparts a smooth texture and delays drying). It reduces the skin drying effect of cosmetic products containing alcohol. Plant-derived glycerin is used as a cosmetic ingredient.

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Glyceryl Caprylate*

Glyceryl Caprylate*

A monoglyceride of caprylic acid with a wide range of cosmetic applications. It combines skin compatibility with excellent selective germicidal effect. It is used as an emollient and co-emulsifier, and demonstrates lipid-replenishing and antibacterial properties.

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Glyceryl Stearate Citrate*

Glyceryl Stearate Citrate*

An ester of citric and stearic acids and glycerol, used as an emulsifier, humectant (a substance that retains moisture in the epidermis) and moisturiser. An ingredient of natural origin, produced from vegetable oils and citric acid.

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Glyceryl Stearate*

Glyceryl Stearate*

Glyceryl stearate is a plant-derived product. It is a consistency regulator and co-emulsifier in water-in-oil creams and lotions. It is used to stabilise cosmetic products – it prevents their surface from crusting by reducing evaporation, and makes cosmetic products more resistant to freezing. It is also beneficial for the skin – it easily penetrates the skin and slows down transepidermal water loss by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface. As a result, it replenishes lipids in the skin, making it soft and smooth. It has also been shown to protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals.

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Glyceryl Undecylenate*

Glyceryl Undecylenate*

A glycerin ester of undecylenic acid produced by combining castor oil with glycerin. It is used in natural cosmetic products as an emulsifier (an agent which helps to combine water with oily substances) and skin re-fatting agent in washes and cleansers. Due to its strong antibacterial properties, it is also used in natural cosmetic products as a component of preservative systems.

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Glycine Soja (Soybean) Oil*

Glycine Soja (Soybean) Oil*

Soybean oil has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It is a valued cosmetic ingredient due to its conditioning, moisturising, antioxidant, photoprotective and anti-aging properties.

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Gypsophila Paniculata (Baby's breath) Root Extract*

Gypsophila Paniculata (Baby's breath) Root Extract*

Gypsophila Paniculata is a medicinal plant native to Europe and Central Asia. It is more commonly known as ‘baby's breath.’ It is a popular filler plant used in floral arrangements. The root of baby's breath is used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes due to its high content of triterpenoid saponins, phytosterols, oligo- and polysaccharides and glycosides. Baby's breath is also used in the cosmetics industry as an ingredient in soaps, shampoos, shower gels, face washes, make-up removers and toners due to its saponins, which decrease the surface tension of water and form high-foaming aqueous solutions. They increase the permeability of cell membranes, promoting the penetration of nutrients into the tissues.

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H

Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch hazel) Leaf Water*

Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch hazel) Leaf Water*

A hydrosol obtained from the leaves of witch hazel. Witch hazel is a deciduous shrub which can grow up to 6 metres tall. It blooms in autumn and bears fruit when it starts shedding leaves. Witch hazel is native to Canada and the north-eastern part of the US. Native Americans used the anti-haemorrhagic and astringent properties of the plant to stop bleeding and treat inflammation and haemorrhoids. Early European settlers in North America adopted witch hazel from the natives and used it as a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery. Witch hazel bark soaked in whiskey was often applied directly to open wounds to fight infections and promote healing. Today, witch hazel bark and leaves are still used in folk medicine to relieve gastrointestinal problems and treat wounds, damaged tissues and broken capillaries. Witch hazel is also an effective remedy for rosacea and hot flushes during the menopause. The extract of witch hazel leaves can also be applied externally to treat eye infections and soothe itching from insect bites and stings. Witch hazel has been listed as a patent-protected cosmetic product and medicine since the 19th century. Thanks to its cleansing, softening and astringent properties, it is excellent for use on skin which is sensitive and oily at the same time. Applied to dry or irritated skin, witch hazel extract stimulates the blood supply, refreshing and soothing the skin and evening out its tone. Because of a high concentration of phenolic compounds, which are effective antioxidants, witch hazel leaf extract is also widely used in anti-aging and after-sun skin care.

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Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch hazel) Leaf Extract*

Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch hazel) Leaf Extract*

An extract obtained from the leaves of witch hazel. Witch hazel is a deciduous shrub which can grow up to 6 metres tall. It blooms in autumn and bears fruit when it starts shedding leaves. Witch hazel is native to Canada and the north-eastern part of the US. Native Americans used the antihaemorrhagic and astringent properties of the plant to stop bleeding and treat inflammation and haemorrhoids. Early European settlers in North America adopted witch hazel from the natives and used it as a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery. Witch hazel bark soaked in whiskey was often applied directly to open wounds to fight infections and promote healing. Today, witch hazel bark and leaves are still used in folk medicine to relieve gastrointestinal problems and treat wounds, damaged tissues and broken capillaries. Witch hazel is also an effective remedy for rosacea and hot flushes during the menopause. The extract of witch hazel leaves can also be applied externally to treat eye infections and soothe itching from insect bites and stings. Witch hazel has been listed as a patent-protected cosmetic product and medicine since the 19th century. Thanks to its cleansing, softening and astringent properties, it is excellent for use on skin which is sensitive and oily at the same time. Applied to dry or irritated skin, witch hazel extract stimulates the blood supply, refreshing and soothing the skin and evening out its tone. Because of a high concentration of phenolic compounds, which are effective antioxidants, witch hazel leaf extract is also widely used in anti-aging and after-sun skin care.

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Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil*

Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil*

Oil extracted from sunflower seeds. Sunflower is an annual plant of the aster family. Spanish colonists brought sunflower seeds from North America to Spain, from where it spread throughout Europe. Sunflower fruits, commonly called seeds, are processed into oil by pressing and refinement. Sunflower seeds contain up to 45% fats and are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidic and behenic acids. The oil extracted from sunflower seeds is characterised by a high content of sterols, tocopherol (vitamin E), phenolic acids, carotenoids, lecithin and minerals. Sunflower oil is used as a cosmetic ingredient in creams, lotions, body oils, bath products and milks for all skin types, and especially for oily, combination and acne-prone skin. It is also added to sunscreens which offer mild protection from the harmful effects of the sun. It absorbs quickly and does not leave a sticky residue. It strengthens the epidermal barrier and significantly softens and smoothes the skin. It is a free radical scavenger with anti-inflammatory and normalising properties. It is non-comedogenic.

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Hippophae Rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn) Fruit Extract*

Hippophae Rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn) Fruit Extract*

Sea buckthorn is an ornamental deciduous shrub widespread in most Asia and Europe. The Latin name of the plant means ‘a shiny horse’ and dates back to the times of Alexander the Great, when sea buckthorn was fed to horses. Animals eating the leaves and young shoots of sea buckthorn would put on weight quickly, and their coat would become shiny. All parts of the sea buckthorn shrub – from its roots, through the stem and leaves, right up to fruits and seeds – are a source of numerous nutrients and biologically active substances which have a beneficial effect on the human body. For this reason, the plant is used widely in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Sea buckthorn fruit, called berries, is orange or yellow in colour. It is fragrant and juicy, with a characteristic tart and sour flavour. Their distinctive aroma is made up of as many as 74 volatile compounds, most of which are esters. The berries are a very rich source of vitamins, minerals and polyphenols. Their pulp is made up of 8 to 12% oil. In total, sea buckthorn berries contain 14 vitamins and 4 pro-vitamins, including 10 times more vitamin C than oranges, 3 times more vitamin A than carrots, and 4 times more vitamin E than sunflower seeds. Apart from strong antioxidants, they contain many amino acids, fatty and organic acids, as well as flavonoids and micro- and macroelements. The extract of sea buckthorn berries is used in cosmetic products for skin which is damaged, excessively dry, flaky, wrinkled and in need of regeneration. It is an ingredient in formulations designed for skin with dilated capillaries and rosacea, as well as for aging skin which needs to have its firmness and suppleness restored. It is also a natural sunscreen which protects the skin from the harmful effects of free radicals and the sun thanks to its outstanding antioxidant properties and the ability to absorb UV radiation. Valued as an ingredient in skin care products which eliminate hyperpigmentation, it additionally gives an attractive sunny tone to the complexion. It is also used in hair care products where it prevents hair loss, demonstrates anti-dandruff activity, and has a beneficial effect on the appearance and condition of the hair.

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Hordeum Vulgare (Barley) Extract*

Hordeum Vulgare (Barley) Extract*

The extract of barley grass. The dry extract of young barley (Hordeum vulgare) is produced by lyophilization i.e. spray drying the juice under low temperature and pressure. This process preserves all the biologically active ingredients of the fresh juice, as well as its aroma and colour. Barley grass extract has a beneficial effect on both human health and appearance. It is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre, chlorophyll and amino acids. In addition, it contains B vitamins, vitamins C, E and K, beta-carotene and folic acid, as well as many minerals, including calcium, magnesium, potassium, silicon, manganese, zinc and iron. It is also valued for its strong antioxidant properties. Thanks to its high chlorophyll content, it is recommended for people with acne and skin lesions. It has an anti-inflammatory and disinfectant effect, which is essential for problem skins. It contains the antioxidant glycosyl isovitexin, which has anti-wrinkle and anti-aging properties. It enhances skin firmness and elasticity and strengthens the vascular walls. It deeply hydrates dry and sagging skin, making it smoother and firmer. Thanks to a high content of dietary fibre, it is excellent for people watching their weight. It contains 7 times more vitamin C than oranges and as much as 30 times more vitamin B1 than milk!

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Humulus Lupulus (Hop) Cone Extract*

Humulus Lupulus (Hop) Cone Extract*

The extract of the common hop plant. Common hop is a herbaceous plant in the Cannabaceae family, native to Europe, Siberia and North America. The beneficial properties of hops have been recognized by the cosmetic industry, which uses the plant in anti-aging products for their high content of phytohormones, which stimulate skin metabolism and boost collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid synthesis. Hops promote epidermal renewal, prevent skin sagging, strengthen skin structure and stimulate regeneration. Phytohormones provide proper hydration for the skin, improving its tightness and elasticity and enhancing its tone. In addition, hop extract contains flavonoids, xanthohumol, triterpenes, rutin, tannins, essential oils, resins, terpenes and sesquiterpenes, polyphenols and sulfur compounds. It demonstrates antiseptic, cleansing, antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is used in formulations designed for oily, combination and acne-prone skin because it reduces sebum secretion, tightens skin pores and promotes the healing of inflammations and eruptions. Thanks to its antioxidant properties, it inhibits the oxidation of vitamin C. It contains rutin which strengthens blood vessels and relieves irritations and redness. Hop extract is a popular ingredient in hair cleansing and conditioning products, especially for hair which is oily or prone to dandruff or falling out. It strengthens hair follicles and adds volume and shine to the hair. It also supports the treatment of scalp psoriasis and pruritus.

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Hydrogenated Lecithin*

Hydrogenated Lecithin*

Hardened (hydrogenated) lecithin is an ingredient derived from soybean oil. Hydrogenated lecithin has the same properties as natural lecithin. It is used as an emulsifier (enhancing the consistency and texture of cosmetic products). It smoothes out the skin and minimises the appearance of wrinkles. It helps to retain moisture in the skin and hair.

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Hydrolyzed Algin*

Hydrolyzed Algin*

Hydrolyzed algae extract derived from algae or seaweed. It is a humectant and conditioning agent. Combined with zinc sulphate, it normalises sebum secretion. It prevents acne breakouts and soothes skin irritations.

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Hypericum Perforatum (Saint John's wort) Flower Extract*

Hypericum Perforatum (Saint John's wort) Flower Extract*

Saint John's wort is a common herbaceous plant that can be found primarily in meadows, clearings and copses, on hill slopes and along wood edges. It occurs in Europe and Asia (except for the far north), North America, Australia and North Africa. It is widespread over the entire territory of Poland. The plant’s common name, St. John’s wort, has a folk origin and comes from the plant usually blooming before the 25th of June. It is one of the most popular herbs used in natural medicine for treating numerous conditions, including digestive, urinary and nervous system disorders and skin inflammations. In the past, St. John’s wort was considered to have magical powers. It was believed to ward off evil spirits and protect from hexes. St. John’s wort extract owes its beneficial properties to an abundance of flavonoids (rutin, quercetin), essential oils, catechin tannins, acids, carotenes, vitamin C and mineral salts. In addition, it contains high quantities of the red pigment hypericin, and the antibiotic hyperforin. St. John’s wort demonstrates anti-inflammatory, toning, astringent, soothing, healing and protective properties. For these reasons, it is used in cosmetic products for oily, combination and acne-prone skin. Thanks to rutin and quercetin, the extract also strengthens capillaries and reduces the permeability of vascular walls. It is used in mouth rinses and in the treatment of vitiligo. It helps to eliminate unwanted odours from cosmetic products.

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I

Isopropyl Isostearate*

Isopropyl Isostearate*

A polysaccharide made from soybeans and corn, used as an excipient and gelling agent. It forms a protective film (occlusive layer) on the skin, intensely moisturises and regenerates, soothes irritations, and can have an anti-allergic effect. It enhances the consistency and texture of cosmetic products.

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Isopropyl Palmitate*

Isopropyl Palmitate*

Isopropyl palmitate is a light emollient with excellent glide properties, which effectively replenishes skin lipids. It promotes the dissolution of fat-soluble actives.

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J

Juniperus Virginiana (Red cedar) Oil**

Juniperus Virginiana (Red cedar) Oil**

Cedar oil is derived from the red cedar tree Juniperus virginiana (commonly called Virginian juniper) of the cypress family by steam distillation. This unusually long-lived tree native to North America is called red cedar for the colour of its wood. Cedar oil has a sweet, balsamic and resinous aroma which is characteristic of many cosmetic products for men (such as eaux de toilette or after-shave creams). It is also used in face, body and hair care formulations. It is added to cosmetic products for oily and acne-prone skin for its astringent, antiseptic and antiseborrhoeic properties. It contains precious antioxidants which protect the skin from environmental aggressors, slowing down its aging. It has a nourishing and moisturising effect. It controls dandruff and sebum secretion and prevents hair loss.

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K

Kaolin*

Kaolin*

Kaolin (also called China clay) is a powdered form of a naturally occurring sedimentary rock composed mainly of kaolinite, as well as quartz and mica. It is one of the most delicate clays and contains a wide range of microelements (mainly silicon, aluminium, iron, magnesium, zinc and calcium) and mineral salts. Its skin conditioning qualities have been known and used for a long time. In cosmetic products, kaolin is mainly recommended for oily and combination skin prone to excessive sebum secretion. It effectively cleanses the skin by absorbing sebum, while the aluminium contained in the clay gently tightens skin pores. It does not strip the skin of its lipids so it can also be used in cosmetic products intended for dry and sensitive skin. It demonstrates natural absorbent properties and works well as an ingredient in masks, compresses, personal skin care products, face and body powders and deodorants.

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L

Lactic Acid*

Lactic Acid*

Lactic acid is a component of the natural hydro-lipid film which regulates skin moisture levels. Lactic acid increases and normalises skin moisture levels, has a nourishing effect on dry and thin skin, and prevents wrinkles. The cosmetic industry uses lactic acid produced from the breakdown of carbohydrates during lactic acid fermentation. In the human body, lactic acid is formed as a by-product of the metabolic processes that occur during the breakdown of glucose.

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Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Flower Water*

Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Flower Water*

Lavender hydrosol is produced by steam distillation of lavender flowers which come from the Lavandula angustifolia (English or narrow-leaved lavender) variety. It has soothing, healing, antioxidant, regenerating and antiseptic properties. The hydrosol is recommended for all skin types, including oily, acne-prone, dry and mature skin, as well as for the skin which is delicate or damaged. The hydrosol’s major constituents – linalool and linalyl acetate – are quickly absorbed by the skin. As well as these, lavender hydrosol also contains small amounts of an essential oil containing terpenes, which have a short-term effect on the structure of the cornified epidermis layer, increasing epidermal permeability and promoting the penetration of cosmetic actives. Due to its scent, the hydrosol has a relaxing and revitalizing effect on the human body. For this reason, it is particularly recommended for use at bedtime. It also strengthens hair follicles, reducing hair loss and stimulating hair growth, as well as protecting the hair shaft itself and preventing colour fading due to sun exposure.

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Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Oil**

Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Oil**

Lavender oil is an essential oil extracted from fresh plants of the genus Lavender (Lavandula). It is one of the essential oils most valued in aromatherapy. It has a wide range of therapeutic uses: it is a remedy for nervous tension, insomnia, rheumatic pain, hypertension, obesity, skin inflammation, fungal infections and hair loss. The oil’s main constituents – linalool and linalool acetate – are quickly absorbed by the skin after topical application. They have a sedative effect on the central nervous system, which makes lavender a valued ingredient in many products which help to induce sleep. Lavender oil promotes wound healing and prevents scarring. For aromatherapy purposes, it is usually used at a 1% concentration. Diluted to this concentration, it relieves anxiety and fear, improving the mood and sense of well-being. The scent of lavender has also been linked with positive emotions. This is evident from the fact that the inhalation of lavender oil increases the pitch of both male and female voices. A higher pitch of human voice indicates a feeling of joy and happiness. The observation of brain waves (with an EEG) following the inhalation of lavender oil reveals a characteristic pattern which corresponds to physical relaxation and a sense of comfort. Aromatherapy sessions based on lavender oil have also been found effective in the treatment of chronic pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Lavender oil applied externally, either on its own or as an ingredient in ointments or lotions, has a warming effect which helps to relieve rheumatic pain. It has been shown that, similar to linalool, lavender oil has a local anaesthetic effect and reduces the responsiveness of sensory nerves. Lavender oil has a wide range of dermatological and cosmetic applications related to its antibiotic and curative properties. It contains terpenes, which reversibly alter the structure of the cornified epidermis layer, increasing epidermal permeability, which in turn promotes the penetration of cosmetic actives. It is also used in the treatment of skin inflammation, ulceration, wounds and burns. A few drops of lavender oil added to a cool bath bring relief to sunburnt skin. The oil can be used to treat eczema, acne, stretch marks and viral herpes. It can also be helpful in the treatment of dry dandruff, hair loss, baldness, skin aging, excessive perspiration, sweat rash, fungal infections and psoriasis.

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Lavandula Stoechas (Lavender) Extract*

Lavandula Stoechas (Lavender) Extract*

French lavender is native to the Mediterranean region. It can grow from 30 to 100 cm tall. Its flowers, pale purple (lavender) in colour, are borne in 2-3 cm long spikes on top of leafless stalks. This lavender variety has developed ‘false’ butterfly-shaped flowers to attract pollinating insects and ensure the continuation of the species. For this reason, the plant is also known by a common name ‘butterfly lavender.’ The ancient Egyptians used butterfly lavender for embalming, the Phoenicians made it into perfumes, and the Romans used it to scent their bathwater. Lavender was known to many ancient civilizations, and reached the peak of its popularity in ancient Greece. It also contributed to the outstanding success of the first French luxury perfume stores. Its medicinal properties have been known for a long time, too. Due to its delicate fragrance and energising colour, lavender has always been associated with luxury, beauty and the sweet aromas of the Mediterranean region.

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Limonene***

Limonene***

Limonene is a constituent of natural essential oils, and especially lemon oil. It is extracted directly from plants by mechanical methods, steam distillation or pressing. It is used in cosmetic products as an ingredient in fragrance compositions.

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Linalool***

Linalool***

Linalool is a constituent of natural essential oils. It is produced by more than 200 plant species, mainly from the Lamiaceae (mint and aromatic herbs), Lauraceae (laurel, cinnamon, rosewood) and Rutaceae (citrus fruits) families, as well as the birch tree and certain mushroom species. It is extracted directly from plants by mechanical methods, steam distillation or pressing. It has an intense aroma of lily of the valley and is used in the cosmetic industry as an ingredient in fragrance compositions.

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Linum Usitatissimum (Linseed) Seed Oil*

Linum Usitatissimum (Linseed) Seed Oil*

Linseed oil is extracted from the seeds of the flax plant. Flax is an annual plant. Although the origin of the plant is not clear, flax probably comes from the Mediterranean region or West Asia. Today, it is cultivated extensively from Europe to America, in temperate and subtropical climates. Cultivated flax plants come in two basic varieties: fibre flax, grown for the fibres produced from the stems of the plant, and oil flax, grown for the oil extracted from its seeds. The seeds are harvested in summer, after they have fully ripened. They are then cleaned and dried at max. 40˚C, which prevents moulding. Linseed oil is produced by cold-pressing at a temperature not exceeding 50°C so that all the constituents of the oil retain their natural structure and hence their biological properties. The curative power of the flax plant was already known in ancient Egypt. Today, the substances contained in linseed oil are considered to reduce the risk of cancer, improve memory and eyesight, lower blood cholesterol levels, strengthen the digestive and nervous systems, and play an important role as components of biological membranes. The major constituent of linseed oil is linoleic acid. Other actives contained in flax include proteins, carbohydrates, lignans, phenolic compounds, mineral salts and minerals. Polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority (over 70%) of the oil fraction. Linseed oil is unique on account of its proportion of α-linolenic acid to linoleic acid. Because of these properties, linseed oil has recently been used extensively in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.

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Lippia Citriodora (Verbena) Leaf Water*

Lippia Citriodora (Verbena) Leaf Water*

A hydrosol obtained from the leaves of the verbena plant. Verbena, also called vervain, is an inconspicuous tall plant with long stems bearing sparse leaves and topped with small flowers. It spreads easily on sunny wastelands and roadsides all over Europe. For centuries, verbena has been regarded as a sacred herb. It was said to ward off evil, and thanks to its association with the divine and other supernatural forces, it was believed to inspire creativity in artists, and increase potency in men. At the same time, it was used as a contraceptive by women. It was placed on altars in honour of Venus and Diana, and used for ritual air purification. Necklaces of verbena were worn for protection from headaches. The plant was also attributed with relaxing, antidepressant and sleep-promoting properties. It was believed to increase vitality and promote overall health. Verbena was valued by the Celtic Druids, who used it for divination and for ritual purification of their sacred sites. It was also used by the Celts to relieve toothache and rheumatic pain, treat bladder ailments and promote wound healing. In the Middle Ages, verbena was associated with witchcraft and magic. It was employed in preparations used to chase away diseases caused by demons, and in charms and aphrodisiacs brewed by witches. A few centuries later verbena gained a reputation for warding off vampires. In folk medicine, an infusion of the dried herb was used for headaches, fever, bladder ailments, insufficient lactation and nervous exhaustion. It was also applied topically onto minor injuries and wounds. Verbena spread to Asia and Japan, and the first settlers brought it to North America. In Ayurvedic medicine, it was used for oral hygiene and tooth and gum strengthening, as well as for contraception. Today, verbena is still used to alleviate headaches and migraines, treat nervous disorders and convulsions, improve digestion, and treat the common cold, fever, influenza and eye inflammation. It promotes lactation but should not be used during pregnancy. Due to its high content of tannins and water-binding mucilage, verbena extract has a very strong softening and astringent effect, which makes it a valuable ingredient in products which promote the healing of wounds, bites and other skin injuries. Verbena extract forms a protective antiseptic film on the skin surface, promoting tissue regeneration. Verbena is also an excellent calming ingredient which is used in milks and toners for sensitive and irritated skin. Verbena is added to oral hygiene products because of its ability to strengthen the teeth and gums.

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M

Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil*

Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil*

Macadamia oil is extracted from the fruit of the macadamia tree by pressing. Macadamia is a tree native to the eastern part of Australia, and the country continues to be one of the leading producers of macadamia nuts, although the plant is now also cultivated in many other parts of the world. Currently, about 70% of macadamia nuts, which are used extensively in the food and cosmetic industries, come from Hawaii. For thousands of years, macadamias were an important dietary component for the Aborigines. The sweet nuts are a rich source of essential fatty acids, proteins, dietary fibre and a wide range of vitamins (B1, B2) and minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium). They can be eaten raw or roasted. Macadamia nuts and the oil extracted from them are regarded as a delicacy throughout the world. Macadamia oil is also one of the most precious cosmetic ingredients due to its high contents of monounsaturated fatty acids (80%) and, most importantly, palmitoleic acid (up to 22%) along with its isomers. Due to its regenerating, nourishing and anti-aging properties, it is recommended for the care of all types of skin, but it is most effective in formulations designed for mature, dry or sensitive skin. Macadamia oil is also used in after-sun skin care because it has a soothing effect on very dry skin and relieves the symptoms of sunburn. Macadamia oil absorbs easily and can be used as a carrier which enhances the penetration of other actives to the deeper skin layers. It is also used extensively in cosmetic products for dry and brittle hair because it strengthens and moisturises the hair, leaving it thicker, shiny and full of volume.

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Malpighia Emarginata (Acerola) Fruit Extract*

Malpighia Emarginata (Acerola) Fruit Extract*

The extract of the fruit of the acerola plant. Acerola, also called Barbados cherry, is an evergreen shrub native to Central America and the Caribbean. Today, it is also cultivated in South America, the US, Australia and the tropical regions of Asia and Africa. Brazil is the largest producer of acerola. The small, sour acerola drupes are famous for their record-setting vitamin C content – one acerola drupe weighing 4.5 g contains as much vitamin C as one kilogram of lemons. In addition, acerola fruits contain substantial quantities of pro-vitamin A, thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin PP) and such minerals as calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc, copper and selenium. Thanks to its high content of vitamin C and other nutrients, acerola is beneficial for both health and beauty. It effectively fights infections and supports the immune system. It is also famous for its amazing rejuvenating properties. It is a potent antioxidant which protects the skin from damage caused by free radicals. Acerola extract is also a delicate natural UV filter which provides skin protection from UVA radiation and can soothe sunburn should this occur. In addition, it demonstrates moisturising and lightening properties, strengthens blood vessels and stimulates the circulation, improving the oxygen and nutrient supply to skin cells. Thanks to its high vitamin C content, it stimulates collagen and elastin synthesis in cells, activating processes associated with skin regeneration. Many facial cream and mask formulations combine acerola with other actives. The products enhance the appearance and overall condition of skin, making it supple, elastic and subtly brightened.

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Malva Sylvestris (Mallow) Flower Extract*

Malva Sylvestris (Mallow) Flower Extract*

The extract of the flowers of the mallow plant. Mallow is a short-lived herbaceous plant growing in temperate climates in Europe and Asia. For centuries, it has been cultivated as an ornamental garden plant for its attractive white, pink, red or purple flowers. The name Malva comes from the Greek word malazos, which means ‘soft’ and refers to the plant’s emollient properties. Mallow extract has been used medicinally for treating upper respiratory tract ailments, catarrh, coughs, stomach ulcers, and during the menopause. Cosmetic products formulated with mallow extract have an anti-inflammatory, astringent and skin strengthening effect attributable to its flavonoids. They inhibit the proliferation of bacteria on the skin, effectively preventing acne breakouts and pus-filled eruptions. Thanks to its high content of beneficial actives, including proteins, flavonoids, tannins, vitamins A, B1 and C, mucilage and mineral compounds, mallow extract demonstrates strong moisturising, nourishing and antioxidant properties. It significantly improves the biomechanical functions of the skin, preventing excessive moisture loss. It gives the skin a healthy tone and makes it perfectly soft and smooth. It has an anti-swelling, soothing and calming effect, especially on delicate and sensitive skin. Used in cosmetic formulations for couperose skin, it strengthens capillaries and reduces their permeability.

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Mauritia Flexuosa (Buriti) Fruit Oil*

Mauritia Flexuosa (Buriti) Fruit Oil*

Buriti oil is extracted from the fruit of the moriche palm. The moriche palm, also called buriti or ité palm, is a tall fast-growing tropical tree that can reach up to 35 m in height. It is native to the swampy areas along the rivers of South America, and especially the Amazon and the Orinoco. It is regarded as a sacred tree by the indigenous people of South America, who call it ‘the tree of life’ because of its fruit, which contains all the nutrients needed to sustain human life. The moriche palm has a wide range of applications – its trunk is used as building material, and its leaves are woven into very strong ropes. Almost all parts of the plant, including its flower buds, sap and fruits, are edible. Its seeds are used to extract the orange-reddish buriti oil, which is produced by cold-pressing. The oil contains more beta-carotene than carrot oil. Buriti oil is rich in strong natural antioxidants: vitamin E, essential fatty acids and tocopherols. In traditional South American medicine, buriti oil was used for treating burns because of its ability to promote new skin growth and reduce scar formation. Buriti oil is used extensively in cosmetic products for dry and mature skin. Due to its high content of vitamin E and essential fatty acids, buriti oil demonstrates excellent soothing and emollient properties, has a nourishing and moisturising effect, and makes skin soft and elastic. It also soothes after-sun skin irritations and sunburns. Its ability to filter and absorb UV rays makes buriti oil an important ingredient of sun protection products. Buriti oil is also effective as a conditioner for brittle and damaged hair.

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Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract*

Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract*

The extract of peppermint leaves. Peppermint is a fast-spreading perennial herbaceous plant with an intense and refreshing bittersweet scent. It is found in temperate climates on all continents, including Europe, West and Central Asia and North America. It typically grows on sandy and loamy soils but requires moist habitats, so it is most widespread along the banks of rivers, streams and drainage ditches, as well as in meadows and pastures. It is an accurate water table indicator. Mint is a home remedy for headaches, fever and indigestion. It has a sedative and normalising effect on the nervous system, and is beneficial for the heart. Used as a mouthwash or gargle, it relieves toothache and soothes swollen gums and canker sores. Due to its large content of menthol, which is a strong antibacterial agent, mint leaf extract is added to cosmetic products recommended for oily and acne-prone skin. Mint leaf extract has soothing and calming properties: its cooling and circulation-stimulating effect helps to reduce pain, making it an effective ingredient in ointments applied to joint dislocations and bruises. Mint leaf extract is also widely used as an insect repellent.

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Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil**

Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil**

Oil extracted from peppermint leaves. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the peppermint plant by steam distillation. Peppermint is a hybrid species which developed as a cross between watermint and spearmint in England in the 18th century. It is now widespread and cultivated for its medicinal properties and attractive taste and aroma. The name ‘mint’ comes from Greek mythology and is derived from the nymph Menthe (Mintho), the lover of Hades, who transformed her into the mint plant to protect her from persecution by his jealous wife Persephone. Mint oil has a very strong and refreshing scent attributable to its main active constituents – menthol and menthone. Peppermint is also rich in flavonoids (luteolin, rutin, hesperidin), vitamins A and C, and mineral ingredients (iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium). It is one of the most commonly used essential oils and a popular ingredient in toothpastes, mouthwashes, anti-cellulite formulations, cooling ointments and gels, creams, masks, toners, peels, shampoos, deodorants, perfumes and foot care products. This wide range of applications is related to the outstanding refreshing, anti-inflammatory and stimulating properties of mint. Mint is beneficial for oily and problem skins – it has a refreshing effect and normalises sebum secretion, preventing clogged pores and acne breakouts. It cools and relaxes tired skin, lightens hyperpigmentation, and stimulates blood circulation, which helps to eliminate swelling. It demonstrates antioxidant properties. It makes the skin smooth and radiant. In aromatherapy, it relieves stress and fatigue, fights depression and calms the nerves. It has a strong relaxing and antiseptic effect on the skin.

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Myrciaria Dubia (Camu camu) Fruit Extract*

Myrciaria Dubia (Camu camu) Fruit Extract*

The extract of the fruit of the camu camu tree. Myrciaria dubia, commonly known as camu camu or cacari, is a small bushy tree native to the Amazon rainforest in Brazil and Peru. Its small fruit is extraordinarily sour and has the highest naturally occurring vitamin C content in the world – 60 times more than oranges! The fruit also contains a wide range of minerals (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron), proteins, beta-carotene, amino acids and vitamins. This blend of precious constituents makes the extract of cacari fruit a highly effective antioxidant agent which prevents skin aging, eliminates lines and wrinkles, and lightens hyperpigmentation. It helps to improve the condition and appearance of the complexion, especially in the case of mature skin. It moisturises and nourishes the skin, restoring its velvety smoothness and elasticity and enhancing the skin tone. Used in hair care products, camu camu extract provides nourishment, adds shine and has a detangling effect. It also has a wide range of medicinal properties – it supports the immune system, relieves joint pain, reduces inflammation and improves eyesight.

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O

Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil*

Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil*

The oil extracted from the fruit of the olive tree. The olive tree typically has a gnarled and twisted trunk and can live for several hundred years. Its fruits – olives – are harvested in autumn, when they are still green, or in winter, when they are purplish-black and fully ripened. The olive tree is native to Asia Minor and North Africa. Its cultivation started in Greece more than 7,000 years ago. In antiquity, olive trees and olive oil were considered sacred. Olive oil was used as food, for payment, and as a medicine, as well as for lighting rooms and for cosmetic and ritual purposes. Perfumed olive oil was applied to the skin for cleansing and refreshment. Wreaths made of olive leaves decorated the heads of the statues of Olympic gods, winners of the Olympic games and war heroes. Olive trees and olive oil are also mentioned in the Bible as a symbol of peace, wisdom, glory and purity. Olives are currently among the most popular cultivated plants in the world. Olive oil is used extensively in many national cuisines and countless cosmetic products. Its curative properties are attributable to a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, including oleic and linoleic acids and vitamin E. Olive oil is an effective emollient which intensely moisturises and protects the skin. It is a common ingredient in regenerating and anti-aging products. It softens and moisturises the skin, leaving a protective film with antioxidant properties on its surface. Olive oil can also stimulate hair growth.

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Oryza Sativa (Rice) Powder*

Oryza Sativa (Rice) Powder*

Rice powder produced by grinding rice grains. The major constituent of rice is starch. Rice grains contain about 90% starch, 7% gluten and nitrogen compounds, 1% sugars and 0.8% fatty acids. Thanks to its high content of carbohydrates and proteins, rice has a high nutritional value. Powdered rice grains are used for treating inflammation. They are applied as compresses to relieve the symptoms of skin infections. In the cosmetic industry, rice is used for its ability to remove dead cells from the surface of skin, as well as to lighten the skin and enhance its structure.

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Oryza Sativa (Rice) Starch*

Oryza Sativa (Rice) Starch*

Starch derived from Asian rice grains is used in baby powders instead of talcum, as well as in powder-textured make-up cosmetics to improve the glide of the products and lend a smooth and soft finish to the skin. Asian rice starch also has excellent soothing and calming properties, and improves skin nourishment and hydration.

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P

Panax Ginseng Root Extract*

Panax Ginseng Root Extract*

The extract of the ginseng plant. Ginseng is also referred to as the all-healing plant due to its remarkable health benefits. The word ginseng derives from Chinese and means ‘man-root.’ It is a long-lived herbaceous plant which can grow from 30 to 70 cm tall. It is native to East Asia, where it is widespread over a territory stretching from Nepal through China, Korea and Japan, right down to Southeast Asia. The traditional medicine of the Far East has recognized the curative properties of ginseng for over 4,000 years, and used the plant as a panacea for a wide range of ailments affecting the nervous and cardiovascular systems, to treat erectile dysfunction, relieve the symptoms of menopause and andropause, and manage diabetes. The remarkable, clinically-proven health benefits of ginseng are attributable to the content of numerous (approx. 200) unique biologically active substances, the most important being the so-called ginsengosides (triterpenoid saponins) which increase the oxygen-binding ability of haemoglobin, thus improving the oxygen supply to internal organs. In addition, ginseng root is a rich source of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, E), a wide array of microelements (calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, potassium, selenium, magnesium, copper, molybdenum), proteoglycans – panaxans, and amino acids. It is used in cosmetic products for its antioxidant and rejuvenating, slimming, anti-cellulite, moisturising (humectant), regenerating and revitalizing properties, and the ability to improve blood supply and support the skin’s immune function. It is also valued as an ingredient which can rebuild and strengthen the hair. Formulations containing ginseng are recommended for all skin types, and especially for tired, dull and pale skin, and for people who experience prolonged exposure to environmental aggressors (stress, UV radiation, environmental pollution). Thanks to its strong antibacterial properties, this ingredient is also effective in formulations designed for young skin which is prone to oiliness and acne eruptions. It promotes the healing of comedones and inflamed skin, and prevents new blemishes. It effectively improves the condition of skin, making it healthier and more radiant.

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Parfum*

Parfum*

This term refers to a natural fragrance composition made up of a carefully selected blend of essential oils, which is used as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

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Paullinia Cupana (Guarana) Fruit Extract*

Paullinia Cupana (Guarana) Fruit Extract*

The extract of the fruit of the guarana plant. Guarana is a plant native to South America, and takes its name from the Guarani tribe which lives in the territory where it was first discovered. The indigenous peoples of South America believed it to be a magical herb, a gift from the gods and an elixir of youth, and used it to improve their physical and mental performance during intense exertion. The botanical name of guarana comes from the German scientist Christian Paullini, who discovered the plant in the 18th century. The extract of guarana fruits contains a high amount of caffeine (4 times more than the fruits of the coffee shrub), as well as theobromine and theophylline, saponins, starch, tannins and vitamin B3 – stimulating ingredients which reduce swelling and promote the removal of toxins from the body. Combined with other extracts, it has a beneficial effect on the appearance and condition of skin. Guarana is used in anti-wrinkle face care for its antioxidant effect and ability to reduce wrinkles and improve the firmness of sagging skin lacking in suppleness. It is also found in eye care products which eliminate dark circles and puffiness under the eyes (because of its ability to stimulate microcirculation), and in a wide range of body care products with slimming and anti-cellulite properties. It promotes the breakdown of adipose tissue, prevents fat deposition and stimulates lymph flow, preventing oedema and cellulite. It stimulates blood circulation by promoting the dilation of blood vessels. It has warming and energising properties. It is used in shampoos and hair conditioners because it assists the treatment of androgenic baldness by stimulating hair growth.

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Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil*

Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil*

Avocado oil is extracted by cold-pressing from the fruit of the Persea Gratissima tree, which is native to South America. The avocado is one of the most nutritious fruits. Its major constituents include lipids and vitamins. The predominant fatty acid in avocado oil is oleic acid, with smaller amounts of palmitic, linoleic, myristic and arachidic acids. Avocado oil contains vitamins A, E and D, proteins and copper. Avocado fruit contains 2% proteins, the amino acids histidine and lecithin, phytosterols, squalane and vitamins C, PP and B2, as well as minerals, including potassium and iron. Avocado is used in natural medicine to strengthen the bones, improve eyesight and treat bloating, the common cold, catarrh, headaches and neuralgia. It stimulates appetite, nourishes the nervous system, normalises the menstrual cycle and relieves cough. Avocado oil is highly valued and widely used as a cosmetic ingredient in products which control the hydro-lipid balance and provide protection, regeneration and nourishment for the skin. The oil supplies fatty acids to the skin – thanks to transesterification reactions which take place in the skin, the fatty acids are re-distributed among the components of biological membranes and the substances supplied along with the oil. As a result, the fatty acids from avocado oil fill the areas where the natural lipid barrier has been compromised. This process is especially important for the replenishment of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid. Linoleic acid deficiency can occur as a result of oxidation caused by free radicals. The deficiency often leads to impaired functioning of the biological membranes which serve as barriers to protect cells from excessive water loss. Dry skin is characterised by an elevated level of saturated fatty acids and a decreased concentration of linoleic acid in corneocyte membranes. However, as soon as a cosmetic product rich in the acid is applied to the skin, the normal fatty acid ratio and proper epidermal function are restored. Cosmetic products formulated with avocado oil form a protective film on the surface of the skin, preventing moisture loss and providing deep skin hydration. In addition, the vitamin E and carotene contained in the oil strengthen the lipid barrier by protecting the lipids and lipoproteins in skin cell membranes. Avocado oil is used in products for dry, damaged and cracked skin. It effectively promotes the healing of minor skin injuries and erosions. It is mild for the skin, absorbs quickly, demonstrates excellent penetration, emollient and occlusive properties, and provides UV protection. It is used extensively in formulations designed for the care and treatment of skin with psoriasis. It is also valued as an ingredient in lipid-replenishing and anti-aging creams. It is used in its basic form for massage, which improves skin firmness and has a relaxing, regenerating and soothing effect.

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Phenethyl Alcohol*

Phenethyl Alcohol*

Phenethyl alcohol (phenylethanol) is found in essential oils, including rose and geranium oils. It has an attractive floral scent and is used in the preparation of fragrance compositions, especially for natural cosmetic products.

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Pinus Sylvestris (Pine) Bud Extract*

Pinus Sylvestris (Pine) Bud Extract*

The extract is produced from the buds of the pine tree, also called the Scots pine. This evergreen tree species in the Pinaceae family is widespread across Northern and Central Europe and Eastern Siberia. Pine buds are a rich source of valuable actives, including essential oils, tannins, vitamin C, flavonoids and bitter compounds. They are used widely in both the cosmetic and the pharmaceutical industries, especially in products for the adjuvant treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (the common cold, coughs, bronchitis), body cleansing therapies, and as a diaphoretic and antipyretic agent. Pine bud extract is used as an ingredient in cosmetic formulations for skin which is dry, acne-prone, or affected by such problems as eczema or psoriasis. It demonstrates antiseptic properties, relieves inflammation, cleanses the skin and normalises sebum secretion. It makes skin smoother and softer. It is also popular as an ingredient in hair care products because of its ability to fight seborrhoea and dandruff, eliminate inflammation affecting hair follicles, and prevent hair loss.

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Pistacia Lentiscus (Mastic) Gum*

Pistacia Lentiscus (Mastic) Gum*

Mastic gum is a soft and fragrant natural resin derived from the sap of the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus) native to the Mediterranean region. The evergreen tree is cultivated primarily on the Greek Island of Chios, and is also called ‘the tears of Chios’ because as it flows out of a scored tree it forms teardrops. The bactericidal, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties of mastic gum have been known since antiquity. The gum is used in cosmetic products for oily and acne-prone skin because of its astringent action. In addition, mastic gum also has a soothing effect on couperose skin due to its ability to tighten dilated capillaries.

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Polyglyceryl-3-Cetyl Ether Olivate Succinate* (Galolive Ten)

Polyglyceryl-3-Cetyl Ether Olivate Succinate* (Galolive Ten)

Galolive Ten is an emulsifier used in formulating oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. It is derived from natural raw materials, including Italian olive oil. Emulsions made with Galolive Ten have a luxurious, glossy appearance and imbue the skin with a light and fresh feeling.

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Polyglyceryl-4 Laurate Sebacate*

Polyglyceryl-4 Laurate Sebacate*

This substance derived from natural raw materials enables the blending of cosmetic ingredients (acts as a solubiliser). It has been specifically developed to incorporate lipophilic cosmetic actives and their carrier oils into clear (transparent) cosmetic formulations. In addition, it demonstrates anti-irritant properties.

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Polyglyceryl-6 Caprate/Caprylate*

Polyglyceryl-6 Caprate/Caprylate*

This substance derived from natural raw materials enables the blending of cosmetic ingredients (acts as a solubiliser). It has been specifically developed to incorporate lipophilic cosmetic active ingredients and their carrier oils into clear (transparent) cosmetic formulations. In addition, it demonstrates anti-irritant properties.

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Potassium Sorbate

Potassium Sorbate

Potassium sorbate is a mild preservative added to food and used in natural cosmetic products and other skin care formulations as an alternative to parabens. It prevents or slows down the growth of microorganisms and protects products from spoiling.

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Propanediol*

Propanediol*

Propanediol is a natural alternative to glycols. It is derived from corn grain. It serves as a natural preservative and demonstrates moisturising properties. Propanediol is an excellent carrier for active cosmetic ingredients and a solvent for acids and plant extracts. In addition to its moisturising properties, it also has an emulsifying and consistency-enhancing effect on cosmetic formulations.

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Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil*

Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil*

Oil extracted from sweet almonds. The almond tree is a small deciduous plant which produces edible seeds known as sweet almonds. Oil expressed from sweet almonds has a wide range of applications as an effective emollient. It is remarkably stable, retains its properties for a long time and contains high concentrations of two skin nourishing substances – linoleic acid, which is an essential Omega 6 fatty acid, and unsaturated triglycerides. Due to its strong moisturising properties, sweet almond oil is used extensively in colour cosmetics and other skin care formulations, as well as in pharmaceutical products. Used as a cosmetic ingredient, sweet almond oil increases the moisturising and emollient effects of lotions and creams with UV filters. Because of its inherent stability and transparency at low temperatures, sweet almond oil is also used to improve the clarity of bath, body and massage oils. Being colourless, odourless and neutral in taste, it provides moisturising properties to such colour cosmetics as lip colours, mascaras or powders. In addition, sweet almond oil is and effective and reliable carrier for pharmaceutical actives.

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Prunus Persica (Peach) Juice*

Prunus Persica (Peach) Juice*

Peach juice is extracted from the flesh of the fruit produced by the peach tree in the rose family. Its Latin name Prunus Persica literally means ‘Persian plum’ and derives from the belief that it originally came to Europe from Persia. However, this popular fruit-bearing tree is actually native to China, where it has been known for more than 4,000 years. The peach fruit is not only delicious, but also easy to digest and rich in highly bioavailable nutrients. Peaches contain vitamins A and C, vitamins B (B1, B2, B3, B6, PP), minerals (potassium, iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus, boron) and organic acids. For this reason, they are especially recommended for elderly, sickly and anaemic people, children and pregnant women. Peach juice is a popular ingredient in natural cosmetics, and the term ‘peachy skin’ refers to smooth and firm skin with a healthy glow. Peaches are used in cosmetic formulations which have toning, refreshing, cleansing, moisturising, anti-wrinkle or smoothing effects, or which generally improve the skin appearance and tone. Peaches have antioxidant properties and stimulate skin cell renewal, making the skin firmer and more elastic. Thanks to their boron and iodine content, they also rejuvenate the skin and prevent wrinkles. Peach juice demonstrates antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, tightens skin pores and lightens hyperpigmentation, helping eliminate acne. It reduces skin dryness and improves hydration, while enhancing the skin’s natural sun protection.

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Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Fruit Extract*

Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Fruit Extract*

The extract of the fruit of the pomegranate tree. The pomegranate is a large shrub or small tree that grows up to 7.5m tall. It is commonly grown as an ornamental plant for its large bright red flowers and glossy leaves. The pomegranate tree is native to Iran and the northern parts of India at the foot of the Himalayas. It has been cultivated for centuries throughout the Middle East. Evidence shows that it was already being used as food a thousand years ago. In Ayurvedic medicine, the extract of the bark, leaves, unripe fruits and peel of pomegranates was widely used as a remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery and haemorrhage due to its astringent properties. Pomegranate juice is used for the treatment of gastritis and can counterbalance a diet rich in sweets and fats, while pomegranate flower infusion used as a gargle can soothe inflamed mouth and throat and help to treat periodontal diseases. Pomegranate extract is a rich source of vitamins and mineral salts. With its high vitamin C content, it has a strong antioxidant effect, while also preventing collagen deficiency. For these reasons, it is an effective cosmetic ingredient in products which help to retain skin suppleness and slow down aging. Pomegranate extract is also a valuable ingredient in oily skin care because of its high content of zinc, which neutralises acids and has an antibacterial effect.

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Pyrus Malus (Apple) Juice*

Pyrus Malus (Apple) Juice*

Juice extracted from apples. The apple is a paradise fruit that came to Europe from the Middle East. It is a symbol of health, life, good harvest, fertility and love, as well as immortality, wealth and power. It appears both in Greek mythology and in Christian tradition, and has been a recurrent motive in literature and culture. This delicious and healthy fruit has about 10 thousand known cultivars, and its name in Slavonic languages means ‘moist’ or ‘juicy.’ Due to their remarkable nutritional properties, apples have a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In skin care, they are used primarily for their fruit acids (AHAs, alpha hydroxy acids), which have an exfoliating, firming and slightly tightening effect on the skin. In addition, apple juice is rich in vitamins A, B, C and K, phytoproteins, flavonoids and phenols. Cosmetic products containing AHAs promote proper skin hydration, lighten slight hyperpigmentation, and are beneficial for dull, dry, tired and pallid skin. They also work well on oily and acne prone-skin because they tighten skin pores, normalise sebum secretion and help to exfoliate cornified epidermis, stimulating skin renewal and promoting regeneration. They demonstrate soothing and anti-inflammatory properties. Thanks to its phenolic compounds and vitamin C, apple juice has antioxidant properties, helps to eliminate free radicals and prevents skin sagging. It prevents premature skin aging by strengthening collagen fibres. Apples are a valuable ingredient in skin care products with moisturising and elasticising effects. Most importantly, they are used in skin exfoliating and smoothing formulations.

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Rosa Damascena (Damask rose) Flower Oil**

Rosa Damascena (Damask rose) Flower Oil**

Oil extracted from the Damask rose. The Damask rose is an ornamental plant with stems densely covered in curved prickles, greyish-green leaves and pastel pink flowers. The flowers are famous for their fragrance with a deep and sweet floral top note followed by a spicy middle note. The Damask rose is native to the Middle East, where it has been regarded as a symbol of love and beauty ever since ancient times. Today, it is cultivated on a mass scale for its petals, which are used to produce rose essential oil by steam distillation. The oil derived from rose plantations in Bulgaria is considered the most precious. Damask rose petals and water produced from them have been used for centuries as a perfume and food flavouring, especially in the Middle East and India. In aromatherapy, the essential oil of Damask rose is used to restore balance, peace and well-being to the body. The oil is one of the most important ingredients used in the perfume industry. It is also valued as an ingredient in cosmetic formulations because of its refreshing, moisturising and regenerating properties. Damask rose oil softens the skin and makes it tighter, giving the complexion an attractive youthful appearance . As one of the safest essential oils to use, it is often added to personal care products and to body and hair cosmetics to give them a wonderful rose scent.

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Rosa Damascena (Damask rose) Flower Water*

Rosa Damascena (Damask rose) Flower Water*

Damask rose distillate (Damask rose water) is produced from flower petals by steam distillation during the production of rose essential oil. The Damask rose is a hybrid derived from the musk rose and the French rose. It is cultivated in Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, India, Uzbekistan, China and the famous Valley of Roses in Bulgaria, where the most fragrant raw material of the best quality comes from. It is considered one of the most luxurious and expensive plant materials. Damask rose hydrosol has a deep rose aroma with sweet honey overtones. It contains flavonoids, tannins, saponins and trace quantities of essential oil. Applied externally, it has a refreshing, moisturising, soothing and antiseptic effect on the skin. It is also used as an alternative to water in a wide range of skin care products, adding variety to the formulations. It improves the overall condition of skin. It is an antioxidant which prevents wrinkles and loss of firmness, making the skin smooth and nourished. It also strengthens blood vessels and relieves irritation and swelling, e.g. around the eyes. Damask rose distillate is recommended for dry, sensitive and mature skin, as well as for oily and acne-prone skin (including skin with rosacea). It is also used in hair care products and deodorants for its aroma and antibacterial effect.

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Rosa Gallica (French rose) Flower Extract*

Rosa Gallica (French rose) Flower Extract*

The French rose, also called the rose of Provins, the apothecary's rose, or the red rose of Lancaster, is a deciduous shrub which grows up to 120 cm tall. At the turn of spring and summer, it produces single fragrant, deep pink flowers. The French rose thrives on well drained soils in full sun to semi-shade. It can survive temperatures down to −35°C. It is native to Southern and Central Europe. It forms large and dense thickets and often spreads on roadsides, but is also grown in gardens as a hedge or ornamental plant. The first people to cultivate the French rose were the ancient Romans. It was mentioned as ‘the rose of Miletus’ by Pliny the Elder in his writings, and depicted in frescoes in the houses at Pompeii. In the Middle Ages, French roses were cultivated for their medicinal properties. In the early 19th century they were often grown in parks and gardens because of their decorative qualities. The French rose has a long history of culinary and medicinal uses. Fresh petals are used as a garnish, while candied petals and rose water produced by petal maceration are used for flavouring sweets (e.g. Turkish delight). Rosehip tea, with a high vitamin C content, stimulates the immune system and is regarded as an effective preventive and remedy for scurvy. Due to its high vitamin C content, rose petal infusion is taken internally to treat the common cold, bronchial infections, gastritis and diarrhoea, as well as to prevent or treat scurvy. It can also be applied externally as a cure for eye inflammation, sore throat and minor skin injuries and irritations. French rose petals are subjected to steam distillation to produce essential oil which is used as a natural antidepressant in aromatherapy. The essential oil extracted from French rose petals has an attractive spicy aroma and is widely used in fragrance compositions. It is often added to body care products due to its antibacterial, astringent and toning properties. The essential oil extracted from rose petals promotes proper skin hydration and strengthens capillaries, so it is particularly recommended for mature, dry or irritated skin.

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Rosa Moschata (Musk rose) Seed Oil*

Rosa Moschata (Musk rose) Seed Oil*

Rosa moschata, commonly called the musk rose, is a shrub which grows up to 2 m tall. It has elastic curved stems bearing purple prickles. Its dark green leaves are oval and glossy, and its flowers are white, pink, or occasionally yellow, with a musky scent. The musk rose is native to Europe. It is mainly cultivated in the UK for its beautiful flowers. It also grows in the wild in the foothills of the Andes in Chile and Argentina. Oil extracted from musk rose seeds has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including oleic, cis-linoleic and α-linolenic acids. It also contains saturated acids – palmitic and stearic. Oil extracted from musk rose seeds is also a source of other beneficial substances such as trans retinoic acid, tannins, flavonoids, vitamin C and β-carotene. Rose oil is excellent for the skin. Its high nutritional value and regenerative properties make it a perfect ingredient for cosmetic and dermatological uses.

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Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract*

Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract*

Rosa moschata, commonly called the musk rose, is a shrub which grows up to 2 m tall. It has elastic curved stems bearing purple prickles. Its dark green leaves are oval and glossy, and its flowers are white, pink, or occasionally yellow, with a musky scent. The musk rose is native to Europe. It is mainly cultivated in the UK for its beautiful flowers. It also grows in the wild in the foothills of the Andes in Chile and Argentina. Oil extracted from musk rose seeds has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including oleic, cis-linoleic and α-linolenic acids. It also contains saturated acids – palmitic and stearic. Oil extracted from musk rose seeds is also a source of other beneficial substances such as trans retinoic acid, tannins, flavonoids, vitamin C and β-carotene. Rose oil is excellent for the skin. Its high nutritional value and regenerative properties make it a perfect ingredient for cosmetic and dermatological uses.

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Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Oil**

Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Oil**

Rosemary oil has a refreshing herbal fragrance. It is extracted from the leaves of the rosemary shrub by steam distillation. Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub in the Lamiaceae family, which can grow up to 2 m tall. It originates from the Mediterranean region, but is widely cultivated throughout the world. Rosemary's medicinal properties were already known in ancient Egypt and Rome. The herb has a wide range of uses in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries. It contains cineole, borneol and its esters, camphor, pinene, verbenone, terpineol and camphene. Rosemary oil is a strong antioxidant – it counteracts the harmful effect of free radicals, prevents skin aging and eliminates wrinkles, crow’s feet and hyperpigmentation. It moisturises the skin, makes it smoother and firmer, stimulates its regeneration and promotes cellulite reduction. Rosemary oil also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and cleansing properties which make it a desirable ingredient in cosmetic formulations for oily and acne-prone skin. It improves the condition and appearance of the hair – it strengthens weak and split hair ends, prevents dryness, eliminates dandruff and leaves the hair silky smooth and full of shine. It is recommended for use in aromatherapy, especially as a remedy for muscle and joint pains and upper respiratory infections. It has stimulating, energising and refreshing properties. It can also alleviate allergy symptoms.

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Salicylic Acid

Salicylic Acid

Salicylic acid is a substance occurring naturally in plants, including willow and poplar bark, senna leaves and camomile inflorescence. It is produced on an industrial scale by chemical synthesis. It demonstrates exfoliating properties and can easily penetrate the skin, and can also penetrate into the hair follicles, which is important for acne treatment. In addition, it helps to unclog skin pores, prevents new breakouts and contributes to the elimination of comedones. It is also used in skin care products which eliminate hyperpigmentation. Salicylic acid can be used as a preservative.

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Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract*

Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract*

An extract obtained from the leaves of the common sage plant. Common sage is a widespread garden and medicinal plant native to the Mediterranean region. In colder climates, it is cultivated as an annual or potted plant because of its low frost tolerance. It thrives in full sun on well-drained calcium-rich soils. Since ancient times, it has been used as a remedy for many ailments, including gastric problems, snake bites, and even infertility in women. Its name ‘salvia’ derives from the Latin verb ‘salvere’ which means ‘to save’ or ‘to cure.’ The medicinal properties of sage became widely recognized in the Middle Ages. Today, sage is used in cooking as a condiment for high-fat dishes that are hard to digest, and as a home remedy to improve digestion. A sage infusion has antiseptic effects and relieves pain caused by throat, oral or gum infections. Sage leaves can be used to clean the teeth. They are also believed to soothe toothache. Fresh sage leaves are sometimes used to clean the teeth, and some consider them an effective remedy for toothache. When applied to insect bites and stings, they have a soothing effect. The essential oil and extract of sage are used in fragrance products and insect repellents. Sage is an excellent hair conditioner, especially for dark hair. Sage extract is a popular toothpaste flavour with additional antiseptic and healing properties which support the treatment of oral and gum infections. The essential oil of sage is also added to massage products to relieve rheumatic, muscle and joint pain.

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Santalum Album (Sandalwood) Wood Oil**

Santalum Album (Sandalwood) Wood Oil**

Sandalwood essential oil is extracted by steam distillation from pieces of wood derived from the sandalwood tree (Santalum album, sacred oil) native to Australia and Southeast Asia. The best wood for distillation comes from trees which are at least 30 or 40 years old, because of their higher oil content and a richer aroma. Sandalwood oil has a sensuous spicy fragrance and is one of the most frequently used perfume components found in products for both men and women. People have known the remarkable properties of sandalwood for thousands of years, at least since ancient Egyptian times, when it was used for embalming. In India, the sandalwood tree is a sacred plant used in Hindu and Buddhist religious practices. It also has a wide range of uses in traditional Indian medicine. These are related to its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, antispasmodic, expectorant, diuretic, emollient, cleansing and sedative properties, and its ability to improve the memory and lower blood pressure. Used in cosmetic products, sandalwood oil has a soothing and calming effect on all types of skin inflammations and irritations. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties, it is particularly recommended for oily and acne-prone skin, as it reduces sebum secretion, tightens dilated skin pores, lightens hyperpigmentation and tones up the skin. The oil prevents excessive moisture loss and makes the skin soft and refreshed. It brings relief to dry, dehydrated and mature skin. It supports the treatment of eczema and psoriasis, and eliminates dandruff. Sandalwood oil plays an important role in aromatherapy – it has a relaxing effect, helps with insomnia, depression and anxiety, reduces stress and improves the mood. It is regarded as a precious aphrodisiac.

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Shorea Stenoptera Seed Butter*

Shorea Stenoptera Seed Butter*

Illipe butter is the fat obtained from the nuts of the Shorea Stenoptera tree native to Southeast Asia and Borneo. The Dayak people indigenous to Borneo have produced butter from Illipe nuts and used it for medicinal and cosmetic purposes for centuries. The butter is pale yellow in colour and has a very delicate nutty aroma. Its fatty acid composition is similar to that of cocoa butter – it contains palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. It is used as a cosmetic ingredient to provide long-lasting skin smoothing effects and prevent wrinkles and the degeneration of skin cells. It leaves a fine film on the surface of skin, which helps to prevent moisture loss. It has nourishing, lipid-replenishing and emollient properties. It keeps skin supple and elastic. Illipe butter is especially beneficial for dry, mature, dehydrated, and even sensitive skin. It is also useful as an ingredient in soaps, lipsticks and hair masks on account of its relatively hard texture.

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Silybum Marianum (Thistle) Seed Oil*

Silybum Marianum (Thistle) Seed Oil*

Milk thistle oil is extracted from the seeds of the milk thistle plant by cold-pressing. Called the wild artichoke in the folk tradition, the herb has been known since ancient times. Its Latin genus name ‘Silybum’ was coined by the Greek physician Dioscorides in 100 AD. Its species name ‘Marianum’ derives from the Virgin Mary and refers to a legend which says that as the Virgin Mary was nursing Baby Jesus in the Bethlehem stable, some of her milk dropped onto a thistle, producing white spots on its leaves. The plant was originally native to the Mediterranean region, but it is now found throughout the world, including Poland. It has remarkable medicinal properties which were first described by the Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides in 40 AD. Most importantly, the plant has beneficial effects on the liver. It can lower blood cholesterol and glucose concentrations and prevent kidney stones and bladder disorders. It is desirable in cosmetic applications for its high content of actives, and especially silymarin, which demonstrates strong anti-inflammatory and detoxifying properties. In addition, it is a rich source of flavonoids, tyramine, tannins, essential oils, sterols, saponins, vitamins and organic acids. Cosmetic formulations containing milk thistle provide a high level of antioxidant protection, which helps to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. They also deeply moisturise and regenerate the skin. Silymarin from milk thistle oil protects the natural epidermal lipid layer and stimulates collagen and elastin synthesis. It also has soothing and anti-inflammatory effects which are especially beneficial for skin with allergies or inflammation. It promotes wound healing and helps to eliminate eczema, excessive epidermal cornification and erythema. It visibly lightens the skin thanks to its whitening properties. Milk thistle oil is usually used as an ingredient in creams, gels, masks, lotions, emulsions and hair care products. It can also be applied directly to the skin, especially to promote regeneration of the hair or brittle nails.

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Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil*

Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil*

Jojoba seed oil native to the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts in Mexico and Arizona, USA. The jojoba shrub has thick greyish-green leaves and bears hard ovoid nuts, which are harvested for the liquid wax they contain, commonly known as jojoba oil. The oil is particularly resistant to oxidation, and its chemical composition is similar to that of whale oil rather than any regular vegetable oil. For centuries, the indigenous inhabitants of the Sonoran Desert have added jojoba oil to such cosmetics as body lotions or hair conditioners, and included it in their diet to suppress hunger. Today, jojoba oil is increasingly used as an alternative to whale oil, helping to preserve the endangered animal species. Jojoba oil is one of the most important cosmetic ingredients. It covers the skin with a thin non-greasy lipid film with strong lipid-replenishing properties, improving skin elasticity and suppleness, and giving the skin a velvety smooth texture. In addition, jojoba oil effectively cleanses the skin, and has conditioning, moisturising and softening effects on both the skin and hair.

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Sodium Anisate

Sodium Anisate

The sodium salt of anisic acid is a safe preservative derived from plants. It is used in natural cosmetic products and fully approved by certification bodies for organic cosmetics (e.g. Ecocert or Cosmos). Anisic acid is an organic compound, a carboxylic acid. Because of its antiseptic properties, the sodium salt of anisic acid is not only an effective antibacterial agent, but also an active with conditioning properties. It has anti-inflammatory effects and can alleviate skin inflammation and irritation. It also restores the skin’s healthy pH balance.

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Sodium Benzoate

Sodium Benzoate

Sodium benzoate occurs naturally in blueberries and, in smaller quantities, in cranberries, mushrooms, cinnamon, cloves and certain dairy products. Its synthetic equivalents are typically used for industrial-scale applications. Sodium benzoate is a popular preservative in food products and natural cosmetics. It inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould.

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Sodium Cocoamphoacetate*

Sodium Cocoamphoacetate*

The blend of sodium glycinate salts of fatty acids contained in coconut oil is a mild plant-derived cleansing agent which is exceptionally gentle to the skin. It removes dirt and debris from the skin and hair. It is also used as a foam booster and stabiliser in washes and cleansers.

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Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide is a chemical compound certified for use in natural cosmetic products at low concentrations.

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Sodium Levulinate*

Sodium Levulinate*

The sodium salt of levulinic acid is usually derived from corn grain. It is used as a preservative and skin conditioning agent in cosmetics and personal care products.

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Sodium Phytate*

Sodium Phytate*

The sodium salt of inositol hexaphosphoric acid (commonly called phytic acid) occurs naturally in the cells of many plants. Sodium phytate for cosmetic applications is derived from rice grain. It is a natural chelating agent which improves the bioavailability of certain chemical elements.

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Sodium Stearoyl Glutamate*

Sodium Stearoyl Glutamate*

Sodium stearoyl glutamate is a naturally-derived emulsifier used in oil-in-water emulsions.

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Sorbic Acid

Sorbic Acid

Sorbic acid is a preservative which prevents the growth of harmful microorganisms. It was first isolated by extraction from the berries of the rowan tree, and its name derives from the Latin name for that species. The sorbic acid used in natural cosmetic products is nature-identical.

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Spilanthes Acmella Flower Extract*

Spilanthes Acmella Flower Extract*

The extract of the flowers of the electric daisy plant. Spilanthes acmella is a plant of the aster family, native to subtropical regions, especially in Brazil and Peru. Acmella has had a wide range of uses in traditional and folk medicine – from a toothache remedy (hence its common name ‘toothache plant’) to an antiseptic, antiviral and antifungal agent. Studies have shown that the extract of the flowers of the electric daisy is beneficial for the skin. It contains spilanthol – a substance capable of inhibiting muscle contractions, which helps to eliminate facial expression lines with efficacy comparable to that of the botulinum toxin. Because of this quality, electric daisy is nicknamed ‘the herbal botox.’ In addition, electric daisy extract is a rich source of tannins, essential oils and flavonoids with a strong antioxidant effect. Cosmetic formulations containing Spilanthes Acmella demonstrate strong firming, smoothing and anti-wrinkle properties.

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Squalane*

Squalane*

Squalene is a naturally occurring lipid produced by virtually all living cells in both animals and plants. It is also produced by the human body. It acts as a natural skin emollient with many beneficial properties: it enhances skin softness and elasticity, helps to reconstruct the epidermal lipid mantle and restore its protective function, moisturises the skin and protects it from penetration by external aggressors. It has antioxidant effects, nourishes the skin and replenishes its lipids, leaving a protective film on its surface. The cosmetic industry mainly uses the saturated form of squalene, known as squalane, because of its longer shelf life. Squalene was traditionally sourced from animal sources, but a technology has been developed to extract it from plant material. Squalene produced this way is referred to as ‘phytosqualene.’

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Stearic Acid*

Stearic Acid*

A fatty acid in solid form. A plant-derived product. Neutralised stearic acid can be used as an emulsifier for oil-in-water emulsions.

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Tilia Platyphyllos (Linden) Flower Extract*

Tilia Platyphyllos (Linden) Flower Extract*

The extract of the flowers of the large-leaved linden tree. Linden is a long-lived tree (which can live for up to 500 years!) widespread throughout Europe, including Poland. It has intensely fragrant inflorescence with a sweet aroma that attracts bees, which use linden flower nectar to produce delicious and healthy honey. In folk medicine, linden flowers have been recognized for centuries as a remedy for such ailments as the common cold, influenza, fever, coughs, sore throats or nervous tension. They are also a valuable ingredient in natural cosmetics due to their high content of flavonoids, essential oils, mucilaginous compounds, vitamins (C and PP) and mineral salts. Linden flower extract is a potent antioxidant with moisturising and refreshing properties. It has a soothing and calming effect on skin irritations and works especially well on the delicate skin of the eye area. It effectively softens and smoothes out the skin. Linden flower extract has an anti-inflammatory effect, cleanses the skin, tightens dilated skin pores and promotes the healing of comedones. It is also beneficial for blood vessels because it constricts capillaries and reduces the permeability of capillary walls, soothing skin redness. Cosmetic products formulated with linden flower extract are safe for use by people with sensitive and irritation-prone, as well dry, couperose and acne-prone skin. The extract is also found in hair care products, especially those which impart bounce and shine to blond hair.

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Tocopherol*

Tocopherol*

Tocopherol is a vitamin E occurring naturally in a number of vegetable oils. It is very beneficial for dry skin.

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Trehalose*

Trehalose*

Trehalose is a disaccharide occurring naturally in baker’s yeast, seaweed and shrimps, as well as in bacteria and fungi. Trehalose protects cells from such adverse environmental conditions as low humidity or extreme cold. It is responsible for maintaining proper cell hydration and prevents protein denaturation and fatty acid degradation. Trehalose is also used as a cosmetic ingredient which helps to mask foul smells.

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Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Seed Extract*

Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Seed Extract*

The extract of germinating wheat seeds is a rich source of vitamin E, essential unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, mineral salts and vitamins (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C). It nourishes and regenerates the skin, and improves its elasticity and moisture levels, preventing excessive water loss. It also demonstrates anti-aging and emollient properties. It is recommended for acne-prone skin for its ability to soothe and relieve irritations and its strong anti-inflammatory effect. It also actively supports dry and damaged, as well as mature skin. It strengthens the skin, slows down its aging, enhances its suppleness and provides protection from the harmful effects of the sun. Wheat germ extract is also beneficial for the hair – it prevents split ends, nourishes hair follicles, smoothes the surface of the hair shaft and prevents dryness. It makes the hair shiny, soft and bouncy.

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Undaria Pinnatifida (Seaweed) Extract*

Undaria Pinnatifida (Seaweed) Extract*

Undaria pinnatifida, also called sea mustard (or wakame in Japanese cuisine), is a brown algae species of the Laminaria family. In Japan, it has been known and cultivated for centuries. It also started to be cultivated in France in the 1970s, and is grown in Brittany to this day. Sea mustard has a mild sweet flavour. It is used under its traditional name ‘wakame’ as an ingredient in miso soup. It is also known in China (where it is called ‘Qundai-cai’). The extract derived from the algae is used in skin care products for its clinically proven ability to lighten the skin and prevent hyperpigmentation.

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Vaccinium Macrocarpon (Cranberry) Fruit Extract*

Vaccinium Macrocarpon (Cranberry) Fruit Extract*

The extract of the large cranberry fruit. The large cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon), also called bearberry, is a perennial shrub of the heather family. It is native to North America but is now also cultivated in many European countries, including Poland. Cranberries demonstrate a wide range of medicinal properties that have been confirmed by research. They prevent urinary infections and periodontitis, reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis, stop the progression of peptic ulcer disease and support immunity. Cranberry extract is rich in vitamins (B1, B2, C, PP), microelements (phosphorus, iodine, copper, calcium), organic acids (citric, ascorbic, quinic), pectins, tannins, carotenoids and flavonoids (poly anthocyanins), which are a source of youth and vitality. Thanks to its unique chemical composition, cranberry extract has a wide range of cosmetic applications. It is especially recommended for mature skin because of its strong antioxidant, lifting, moisturising and regenerating properties. It effectively nourishes sagging and excessively dry skin, restoring its velvety smoothness and radiance. The antibacterial and cleansing properties of cranberries are invaluable in the treatment of acne-prone skin. Cranberry extract stabilises capillary walls, which helps prevent them from becoming fragile and breaking. Combined with other ingredients (such as caffeine), it improves blood microcirculation and stimulates the metabolism, producing an intense anti-cellulite effect.

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Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil*

Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil*

Grape seed oil is extracted by cold-pressing from the seeds found in the fruit of the common grape vine, also known as the wine grape plant. The plant species originally appeared throughout the Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia, but is currently cultivated all over the world. Oil extracted from grape seeds is one of the strongest known antioxidants rich in the ‘vitamins of youth’ – A and E – which are beneficial for the skin, as they strengthen its protective barrier, provide moisture and slow down its aging. The oil has a very high content of unsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids (more than 90%), as well as minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, boron, iodine, copper and iron). It also contains polyphenolic antioxidants – flavonoids and resveratrol – as well as vitamins D and K. Thanks to its unique components, grape seed oil has wide-ranging beneficial effects on the skin and is used extensively in personal care and anti-aging products. It has regenerating properties, acts as an effective free radical scavenger, slows down skin aging and strengthens the skin’s natural protective barrier. It increases skin firmness and elasticity, and makes the skin tighter. It is commonly used as an ingredient in facial creams for mature and couperose skin because of its high vitamin K content. Grape seed oil regulates the functioning of sebaceous glands and has a soothing and mattifying effect, which makes it a desirable ingredient in cosmetic products for oily and acne-prone skin. It has an anti-inflammatory and toning effect, prevents comedones and reduces the visibility of skin pores. It refreshes the skin, makes it smoother and evens out its tone, while gently replenishing lipids. It also prevents excessive moisture loss by maintaining proper hydration of the cornified epidermal layer. Grape seed oil can also be applied directly onto the face or body. It is fully absorbed by the epidermis and leaves no greasy film on its surface. Rubbed into hair ends, it strengthens the hair, imparts shine and has a detangling effect.

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Xanthan Gum*

Xanthan Gum*

Xanthan (or xanthan gum) is a polysaccharide produced from glucose by microorganisms. It is used as a thickener in cosmetic products. It is very well tolerated by the skin.

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Z

Zinc Sulphate

Zinc Sulphate

Zinc is a highly active chemical element. Due to its unique properties, it was one of the first chemicals used for cosmetic purposes. Zinc ointment was already regarded as a skin remedy in ancient Egypt more than five thousand years ago. Cosmetic formulations containing zinc have a protective effect and are used in the treatment of such inflammatory skin conditions as irritant nappy dermatitis. Zinc deficiency leads to skin disorders including seborrhoea and acne. In such cases, zinc sulphate can be applied to promote exfoliation and support the treatment. Zinc stimulates collagen metabolism and promotes hair and nail growth and tissue regeneration. This chemical element participates in the synthesis of substances which control the skin’s secretory function and are responsible for the amount of sebum produced. Zinc-based formulations promote the removal of sebum deposits from the skin, help to restore skin’s healthy pH, tighten dilated skin pores, soothe inflammation and make the skin less prone to new breakouts. Ionic zinc improves the structure of both skin and hair.

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